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Vascular Plants of California
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Chorizanthe biloba var. biloba
TWO-LOBE SPINEFLOWER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ChorizantheView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SPINEFLOWER
Habit: Annual [perennial herb], generally hairy. Stem: branches basal or from erect stem, prostrate or decumbent to ascending. Leaf: all basal or basal and cauline, alternate except for bracts, awnless; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: cyme-like, open to +- congested; axes generally 3 from plant base or proximalmost branching node of erect stem, equally or unequally forked; bracts opposite or whorled, entire, generally in whorl of 3 at proximalmost branching node, not distinguishable from basal leaves in plants branched from base, distal generally opposite, proximal leaf-like or some or all scale-like to linear, needle-like, awnless or distal often all awned; involucres sessile, generally solitary at axis forks, distally in loose to dense clusters; involucre tubular, 3--6-ribbed, lobes 3, 5, or 6, equally or unequally awned, awns straight or hooked; involucres at forks often differing from those in clusters. Flower: 1(2) per involucre; pedicel short, included in involucre; perianth glabrous or hairy, white, yellow, pink, maroon, or purple, sometimes 2-colored, lobes (5)6, entire, minutely toothed, or fringed, tip acute, rounded, notched, or 2-lobed; stamens generally 3, 6, or 9. Fruit: generally brown or black, generally ellipsoid, glabrous; embryo straight or curved.
Etymology: (Greek: divided flower, for perianth lobes) Note: Involucre length measurements include lobes and awns unless otherwise specified. Chorizanthe minutiflora and C. aphanantha newly described, added; C. eastwoodiae segregated from C. angustifolia.
eFlora Treatment Author: James L. Reveal, Thomas J. Rosatti, David Gowen & David J. Keil
Reference: Morgan et al. 2014 Phytoneuron 2014-63:1--9; Nelson et al. 2018 Madroño 65:184--191; Gowen & Johnson 2020 Phytotaxa 455(1):1--8.
Species: Chorizanthe bilobaView Description 


Habit: Plant generally erect, (0.5)1--3(4) dm, hairy. Stem: branches generally from erect stem, ascending. Leaf: basal; blades 1--3(5) cm, 0.4--1(1.3) cm wide, oblanceolate. Inflorescence: axes +- equally forked proximally, unequally forked distally; bracts leaflike 2--3 at most proximal node, often a whorl of 3--5 +- at middle, distal linear, needle-like, awns straight, 1--3 mm; clusters +- dense, flat; involucre 4--6 mm, 3-angled, 6-ribbed, +- swollen basally, +- transversely ridged, lobes 6, 1--2 mm, alternately longer and shorter, abaxial longest, margins not scarious, awns 0.5--2 mm, all hooked or abaxial +- straight. Flower: 1; perianth (4.5)5--6 mm, sparsely hairy, lobes light to dark purple, outer longer and wider than inner, spreading, 2-lobed or notched, inner erect, fringed; stamens 9. Fruit: 4--4.5 mm.

Chorizanthe biloba Goodman var. biloba
NATIVE
Flower: outer perianth lobes deeply 2-lobed, occasionally minutely toothed. Chromosomes: n=20.
Ecology: Uncommon. Sand, gravel, clay; Elevation: 200--700 m. Bioregional Distribution: e SCoRO, w SCoRI, e SCoRI (near Parkfield Grade, w Fresno Co.). Flowering Time: May--Aug
Synonyms: Chorizanthe palmeri S. Watson var. biloba (Goodman) Munz
Jepson eFlora Author: James L. Reveal, Thomas J. Rosatti, David Gowen & David J. Keil
Reference: Morgan et al. 2014 Phytoneuron 2014-63:1--9; Nelson et al. 2018 Madroño 65:184--191; Gowen & Johnson 2020 Phytotaxa 455(1):1--8.
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: James L. Reveal, Thomas J. Rosatti, David Gowen & David J. Keil 2022, Chorizanthe biloba var. biloba, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 10, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=56478, accessed on April 13, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on April 13, 2024.

Chorizanthe biloba  
var. biloba
click for enlargement
©2013 Chris Winchell
Chorizanthe biloba  
var. biloba
click for enlargement
©2013 Chris Winchell
Chorizanthe biloba  
var. biloba
click for enlargement
©2013 Chris Winchell
Chorizanthe biloba  
var. biloba
click for enlargement
©2013 Chris Winchell
Chorizanthe biloba  
var. biloba
click for enlargement
©2013 Chris Winchell

More photos of Chorizanthe biloba var. biloba
in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Chorizanthe biloba var. biloba:
e SCoRO, w SCoRI, e SCoRI (near Parkfield Grade, w Fresno Co.).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).