Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three varieties: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
Species: Pinus torreyanaView Description 

Stem: trunk < 23 (< 33 in cultivation) m, < 1 m wide; mature crown open, rounded, branches many large; mature bark with red-brown plates between irregular furrows. Leaf: 5 per bundle, often 3 in young trees, 15--26 cm, stiff, gray-yellow- to gray-blue-green; sheath persistent. Seed Cone: spreading to recurved, < 16 cm, +- symmetric, +- longer than wide to much wider, scales dark brown, opening slowly 3rd year, persistent < 15 years; stalk < 4 mm; scale tip knobs pyramidal, light-colored, < 2 cm, minute-prickly. Seed: 16--24 mm, > wing, light brown to +- black, mottled or not, in cone < 13 years.

Unabridged Note: According to Zavarin et al. 1967 Phytochemistry 6:1019--1023, native stands showed differences in terpenoids (beta-phellandrene, limonene, cineole) for the subspecies.
Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière subsp. insularis J.R. Haller
Stem: trunk < 15 m; mature crowns of sheltered plants generally wider than plant height, overall generally compact, with crowded branches. Leaf: generally gray-blue-green. Seed Cone: width generally > 13.5 cm, > length; scale tip knobs generally > 6 mm, > 1/3 scale thickness, entire knob curved outward. Seed: generally > 11 mm wide, medium brown to +- black.
Ecology: Forming densely forested strip on +- n-facing slope parallel to coast, with scattered chaparral, island woodland components; Elevation: < 150 m. Bioregional Distribution: n ChI (Santa Rosa Island). Note: < 1000 trees. Threatened by browsing of young pls, small population size. Not well established when planted at a few localities in coastal Santa Barbara Co.
Jepson eFlora Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Pinus torreyana
Next taxon: Pinus torreyana subsp. torreyana

Name Search

Please use this Google Form for Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2012, Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 24, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 24, 2024.

Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
click for enlargement
©2013 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
click for enlargement
©2013 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
click for enlargement
©2013 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
click for enlargement
©2013 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
click for enlargement
©2013 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Pinus torreyana subsp. insularis:
n ChI (Santa Rosa Island).
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).