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Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: MINT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1--2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, +- flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). Note: Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MonardellaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub, +- gland-dotted, scented. Leaf: entire to serrate, margin flat or wavy; petioles 0 or present, often grading into blade. Inflorescence: flowers in compact clusters of >= 1 per main stem, these occasionally arrayed in panicles (rarely spikes); flowers 3--100 per cluster; bracts generally erect in a cup-like involucre or reflexed, reduced in size inward, leaf-like to membranous in texture, green or straw-colored to rose or purple, linear to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse. Flower: calyx 5-lobed; 4--25 mm; corolla white to purple or yellow to red, weakly bilateral, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed.
Etymology: (Latin: small Monarda) Note: Complex; study needed; many taxa intergrade; flower cluster width and bract orientation given for pressed specimens. Leaf length including petiole, if present. M. Brunell authored Monardella follettii (in part), Monardella odoratissima (in part), Monardella palmeri, Monardella purpurea, Monardella sheltonii (in part), Monardella stebbinsii, Monardella villosa (in part).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andrew C. Sanders, Mark A. Elvin & Mark S. Brunell
Reference: Elvin & Sanders 2009 Novon 19:315--343; Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1--106; Jepson 1943 Fl California 431--444
Unabridged Reference: Abrams 1951 Ill Fl Pac Sts V III:648--660
Species: Monardella villosaView Description 

Common Name: COYOTE-MINT
Habit: Subshrub, matted to erect, open, rhizomed; hairs generally > 0.5 mm, appressed to spreading, sparse to dense, soft, wavy, or woolly, glandular and not, branched or not. Leaf: 10--30 mm (including petiole, 5--10 mm), length < 1--3.3 × width, lanceolate to ovate or widely triangular-ovate, serrate or crenate (entire), base truncate to obtuse or tapered; abaxially glandular-hairy, woolly or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters generally 1--6(10) per main stem, 10--40 mm wide; bracts 10--30 mm, reflexed; bracts generally leaf-like in texture, color, hairiness (or innermost of middle series +- scarious proximally), innermost linear to elliptic-ovate. Flower: calyx tube hairy, glandular, hairs on lobes generally similar to hairs on tube (or stiff-spreading); corolla 10--20 mm, white or pink to purple, lobes obtuse.

Unabridged Note: Leaf length-to-width ratio > 3 in inland northern NCoRO (Humboldt Co.), <= 1 in southern NCo and CCo. Flower clusters occasionally 6--10 per main stem in KR, northern NCoR. If recognized taxonomically, plants of coastal foothills of Santa Lucia Range, from San Luis Obispo Co. northern and possibly to Santa Cruz Co., with purple scarious bracts, and ovate, glabrous to sparsely hairy leaves assignable to Monardella villosa var. subglabra Hoover. Literature reports of hybridization involving that entity, Monardella palmeri, and Monardella villosa subsp. obispoensis in the Alder Creek area of Monterey Co. have not been confirmed.
Monardella villosa Benth. subsp. franciscana (Elmer) Jokerst
Habit: Plant matted to erect, open; generally densely matted-white-woolly or hairs +- 0. Leaf: thick, ovate to widely triangular-ovate, entire to serrate, base generally truncate; abaxially hairy to white-woolly (appearing white or green), veins sunken. Inflorescence: flower cluster 15--40 mm wide, many-flowered.
Ecology: Coastal scrub, woodland; Elevation: < 400 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCo, n CCo, SnFrB (San Mateo, Santa Clara cos.). Flowering Time: May--Aug
Synonyms: Monardella franciscana Elmer; Monardella villosa var. franciscana (Elmer) Jeps.
Unabridged Note: Distributed on the coast from Mendocino Co. (Point Arena area) to San Mateo Co. (+- Pescadero Point). In Mendocino Co., leaf shape and thickness are typical for this subsp.; however, abaxial hairiness ranges from sparsely hairy to woolly. A variant in Sonoma Co. between the Russian River and the Mendocino Co. line, has thin, sparsely hairy leaves. At the mouth of the Russian River this variant coexists with the typical thick, woolly-leaved form of Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana. Small-leaved variants occur inland at Mount St. Helena, Cazadero (where they are sympatric and possibly intergrading with Monardella viridis), and Telegraph Hill (Sonoma Co.). From Marin Co. to San Mateo Co., generally thick-leaved, woolly plants occur on the immediate coast, with less hairy and smaller-leaved variants further inland, except on San Bruno Mtn (San Mateo Co.), where the typical coastal variant occurs. Purple-leaved variants, resembling Monardella purpurea, occur on serpentine soil in the Portola/Woodside area (San Mateo Co.).
Jepson eFlora Author: Andrew C. Sanders, Mark A. Elvin & Mark S. Brunell
Reference: Elvin & Sanders 2009 Novon 19:315--343; Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1--106; Jepson 1943 Fl California 431--444
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Andrew C. Sanders, Mark A. Elvin & Mark S. Brunell 2012, Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana
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©2020 Neal Kramer
Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana
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©2008 Neal Kramer
Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana
click for enlargement
©2008 Neal Kramer
Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana
click for enlargement
©2020 Neal Kramer
Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana
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©2009 Vernon Smith

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Geographic subdivisions for Monardella villosa subsp. franciscana:
s NCo, n CCo, SnFrB (San Mateo, Santa Clara cos.).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).