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Vascular Plants of California
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Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CastillejaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: +- asymmetric. Seed: generally +- brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744--1793) Note: Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608--625
Unabridged Reference: Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644--666
Species: Castilleja exsertaView Description 

Habit: Annual 10--45 cm, glandular-puberulent, stiff-hairy. Leaf: 10--50 mm; lobes 5--9, +- thread-like. Inflorescence: 2--20 cm, 2--4 cm wide; bracts 10--25 mm, white to purple-red, lobes 5--9 (lowest pair often again 2--4-lobed), +- linear, tips wider. Flower: calyx 10--22 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/3 on sides, colored like bracts; corolla 12--30 mm, beak 6--7 mm, densely shaggy-hairy, tip hooked, lower lip 4--6 mm, pouches 3--8 mm wide, 3--4 mm deep; filaments puberulent; stigma +- included. Fruit: 10--15 mm. Seed: 1--2 mm; coat deeply netted, loose-fitting.
Note: Highly variable; hybridizes with Castilleja attenuata, Castilleja densiflora, Castilleja lineariloba.
Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & Heckard subsp. exserta
Inflorescence: distal bracts generally < 5 mm wide, lobes > 2 mm, tipped white, pale yellow, or rose to +- purple. Flower: corolla colored like bracts. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Open fields, grassland; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, SNF, GV, CW, SW, w DMoj; Distribution Outside California: Arizona. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth.; Orthocarpus purpurascens var. pallidus D.D. Keck
Jepson eFlora Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608--625
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta

botanical illustration including Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta

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Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard 2012, Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta
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©2016 Neal Kramer
Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta
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©2009 Barry Rice
Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta
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©2024 Neal Kramer
Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta
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©2007 Neal Kramer
Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta
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©2017 Keir Morse

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Geographic subdivisions for Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta:
NW, SNF, GV, CW, SW, w DMoj
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).