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Vascular Plants of California
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Solidago confinis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SolidagoView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GOLDENROD
Habit: Perennial herb from woody caudex or rhizome, branched distally. Leaf: alternate, often sessile, resinous or not. Inflorescence: heads radiate, few to many, in +- flat-topped to panicle-like, often +- 1-sided clusters; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped; phyllaries generally +- graduated in 3--5 series, midrib generally +- swollen, translucent, tip flat or slightly swollen; receptacle slightly convex, honeycombed, ridges uneven, epaleate. Ray Flower: few to many; ray yellow. Disk Flower: few to many; corolla yellow, generally glabrous; anther tip narrowly triangular; style branches finely papillate, tips triangular. Fruit: obconic, compressed; pappus of 25--45 long-barbed bristles in 1 series.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: especially North America (South America, Eurasia). Etymology: (Greek: make-well, for purported medicinal value)
eFlora Treatment Author: John C. Semple
Reference: Semple & Cook 2006 FNANM 20:107--166
Solidago confinis A. Gray
Habit: Plant +- glabrous. Stem: < 21 dm, often stout, from short, branched caudex. Leaf: proximal largest, 5--25 cm, generally < 10 × longer than wide, entire, often +- fleshy, base nearly sheathing, distal-most sometimes scale-like or with axillary leaf-clusters. Inflorescence: panicle-like, generally club-shaped; heads generally many; involucre 2.5--4 mm, phyllaries very narrowly triangular, inrolled near tip, sharply acute, +- strongly graduated, outer 1/3--2/3 inner; midrib generally enlarged, translucent. Ray Flower: 3--13; ray 1--2.5 mm. Disk Flower: 10--20; corolla +- 3--4 mm. Fruit: 1--1.5 mm, +- strigose. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Wet streambanks, springs, marshes; Elevation: generally < 2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: Teh, CCo, SnFrB (extirpated), SCoR, SW, W&I, DMtns. Flowering Time: Apr--Oct Note: Involucres of northern DMtns plants like those of Solidago spectabilis.
Synonyms: Solidago spectabilis (D.C. Eaton) A. Gray var. confinis (A. Gray) Cronquist
Jepson eFlora Author: John C. Semple
Reference: Semple & Cook 2006 FNANM 20:107--166
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Solidago altissima subsp. altissima
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Botanical illustration including Solidago confinis

botanical illustration including Solidago confinis


Citation for this treatment: John C. Semple 2012, Solidago confinis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 28, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 28, 2021.

Solidago confinis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Solidago confinis
click for enlargement
© 2014 Neal Kramer
Solidago confinis
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Solidago confinis
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Solidago confinis
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Solidago confinis
click for enlargement
© 2003 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Solidago confinis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Solidago confinis:
Teh, CCo, SnFrB (extirpated), SCoR, SW, W&I, DMtns.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).