Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Reference: Keeley 1997 Madroño 44:109--111; Parker et al. 2007 Madroño 54:148--155
Species: Arctostaphylos manzanitaView Description 

Habit: Erect, 2--8 m; burled or not. Leaf: erect; petiole 6--12 mm; blade 2.5--5 cm, 1--3.5 cm wide, wide- or oblong-ovate to obovate, bright green, shiny, or glaucous, dull, glabrous or scabrous, veins nonglandular-hairy, base rounded to +- wedge-shaped, tip acute, margin entire, flat. Inflorescence: panicle, 2--7-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 1.5--4.5 cm; bracts appressed, 2--4 mm, scale-like, deltate to sharp-pointed; pedicel 3--8 mm, glabrous. Fruit: 8--12 mm wide, depressed-spheric. Chromosomes: 2n=52.

Arctostaphylos manzanita Parry subsp. laevigata (Eastw.) Munz
Habit: Burl 0. Stem: twig sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy. Leaf: bright green, shiny. Inflorescence: 2--4-branched; axis > 1 mm wide. Flower: ovary (and fruit) glabrous. Fruit: stones free.
Ecology: Chaparral, rocky outcrops; Elevation: 240--1100 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRI (Vaca Mtns), e SnFrB (Mount Diablo). Flowering Time: Feb--May
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos laevigata Eastw.; Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth subsp. laevigata (Eastw.) Roof
Jepson eFlora Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Reference: Keeley 1997 Madroño 44:109--111; Parker et al. 2007 Madroño 54:148--155
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. glaucescens
Next taxon: Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. manzanita

Name Search

Please use this Google Form for Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2012, Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 02, 2023.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2023, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 02, 2023.

Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
click for enlargement
©2016 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
click for enlargement
©1992 David Graber
Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
click for enlargement
©2016 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
click for enlargement
©2016 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
click for enlargement
©2016 Neal Kramer

More photos of Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos manzanita subsp. laevigata:
s NCoRI (Vaca Mtns), e SnFrB (Mount Diablo).
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).