Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Xylococcus bicolor

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: XylococcusView Description 

Etymology: (Greek: wood berry, from stone of fruit)
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace
Xylococcus bicolor Nutt.
Habit: Shrub, burled. Stem: erect, < 2.5 m; bark shredding; twigs canescent. Leaf: generally alternate, evergreen, 2.5--4.5 cm, elliptic to oblong, leathery; margin entire, rolled under, abaxially densely white- to gray-hairy, adaxially glabrous, dark green. Inflorescence: panicle, +- reflexed, dense, bracted; pedicel not jointed to flower, bractlets 2. Flower: sepals generally 5; corolla urn-shaped, hairy, petals 5, fused, < 9 mm, white or +- pink; stamens generally 10, filaments woolly in lower 1/2, not swollen at base, anthers dehiscing by separate slits, awned; ovary superior, hairy, chambers generally 5, placentas axile. Fruit: drupe, < 9 mm wide, smooth, flesh dry; stones (3)5, fused into a smooth unit. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Chaparral; Elevation: < 650 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, s ChI (Santa Catalina Island), PR (exc SnJt); Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Dec--Feb
Jepson eFlora Author: Gary D. Wallace
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Xylococcus bicolor

botanical illustration including Xylococcus bicolor

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Citation for this treatment: Gary D. Wallace 2012, Xylococcus bicolor, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2024.

Xylococcus bicolor
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©1996 Christopher L. Christie
Xylococcus bicolor
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©2013 Keir Morse
Xylococcus bicolor
click for enlargement
©2013 Keir Morse
Xylococcus bicolor
click for enlargement
©2013 Keir Morse
Xylococcus bicolor
click for enlargement
©2013 Keir Morse

More photos of Xylococcus bicolor
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Xylococcus bicolor:
SCo, s ChI (Santa Catalina Island), PR (exc SnJt)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).