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Vascular Plants of California
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Vachellia farnesiana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: VachelliaView Description 

Habit: Shrub, tree, armed with stipular spines, prickles 0. Leaf: even-2-pinnate, generally alternate, generally deciduous; petiole, main axis generally with raised glands. Inflorescence: head [spike], generally 1 (or in raceme, panicle). Flower: radial; sepals, petals in 4--5, inconspicuous; stamens many, conspicuous, exserted, free; ovary simple. Fruit: dehiscent or not, flat or +- cylindric. Seed: rarely arilled.
Etymology: (Rev. G.H. Vachell)
eFlora Treatment Author: David Seigler & John E. Ebinger
Reference: Seigler & Ebinger 2005 Phytologia 87:139--178
Unabridged Reference: Ebinger et al. 2002 SW Naturalist 47:86--91
Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.
Habit: Shrub, small tree < 8 m; stipular spines 7--30(50) mm, straight, white in age. Stem: twig +- ridged, +- hairy. Leaf: clustered on short-shoot or not, deciduous, < 5 cm; petiole 3--16 mm, +- hairy, gland present; 1° leaflets 2--6 pairs, 6--33 mm; 2° leaflets 8--19 pairs, 1.6--6.3 mm, 0.5--1.7 mm wide, oblong. Inflorescence: head, generally 1--3 per axil, also clustered with leaves on short-shoots, stalked, < leaf. Flower: bright yellow to dull orange. Fruit: indehiscent, 9--18 mm wide, +- straight, cylindric, leathery, dark brown, glabrous. Seed: +- embedded in a sweet pulp.
Note: Introduced in tropics, subtropics worldwide, often a troublesome, invasive weed. Cultivated in southern Europe for flower oils used in perfumes.
Jepson eFlora Author: David Seigler & John E. Ebinger
Reference: Seigler & Ebinger 2005 Phytologia 87:139--178
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Key to Vachellia farnesiana

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Citation for this treatment: David Seigler & John E. Ebinger 2012, Vachellia farnesiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 16, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 16, 2024.

Vachellia farnesiana
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©2006 Steve Matson

More photos of Vachellia farnesiana
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Geographic subdivisions for Vachellia farnesiana:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).