Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Ulmus parvifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: UlmaceaeView Description 
Common Name: ELM FAMILY
Habit: Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4--9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4--9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, +- 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). Note: Celtis moved to Cannabaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: UlmusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ELM
Habit: Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7--17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4--9; stamens 4--9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: northern temperate. Note: Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.
Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.
Habit: To 25 m; bark not ridged, peeling as irregular woody scales 2--8 cm wide, orange-brown where freshly exposed, soon weathering ash-gray. Stem: corky outgrowths on branches 0; winter buds red-brown, short-ovoid or +- spheric, glabrous. Leaf: 2.5--5 cm, 1--2 cm wide, lance-ovate to narrowly elliptic, acute to obtuse, margins obtusely and irregularly simply serrate, abaxial surface glabrous or pubescent only on major veins and tufted in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit in autumn; pedicel +- 0. Fruit: 1--1.3 cm, 0.6--0.8 cm wide, elliptical to ovate-elliptical, tan to dark red-brown, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface in notch.
Ecology: Streams, springs, wetlands, roadsides, disturbed areas; Elevation: 10--1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo, SW, MP, W&I; Distribution Outside California: to eastern United States; native to eastern Asia. Flowering Time: Aug--Oct
Jepson eFlora Author: Alan T. Whittemore
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Ulmus minor
Next taxon: Ulmus pumila

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Botanical illustration including Ulmus parvifolia

botanical illustration including Ulmus parvifolia


Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2012, Ulmus parvifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 17, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 17, 2021.

Ulmus parvifolia
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© 2010 Vernon Smith
Ulmus parvifolia
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© 2014 Vernon Smith
Ulmus parvifolia
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Ulmus parvifolia
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Ulmus parvifolia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Ulmus parvifolia:
CCo, SW, MP, W&I
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).