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Vascular Plants of California
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Trifolium appendiculatum
LARGE VARIEGATED CLOVER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: LEGUME FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TrifoliumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: CLOVER
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, unarmed. Leaf: generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole, generally papery or membranous; leaflets generally 3, occasionally 5--9, +- toothed or wavy. Inflorescence: raceme (generally umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, generally involucred, generally peduncled; inflorescence bracts 0 or forming vestigial ring or involucre; flower bracts present or not. Flower: generally spreading to erect, generally becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, occasionally yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit: generally indehiscent but generally breaking, short, plump, generally enclosed in corolla; base generally stalk-like. Seed: 1--6.
Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael A. Vincent
Reference: Foster & Vincent 2018 Madroño 65:141--150; Morgan et al. 2014 Novon 23:65--69; Tressel et al. 2022 Madroño 69:327--340; Vincent & Gillett 2023 FNANM 11(2):914--974
Unabridged Reference: Gillett 1980 Canad J Bot 58:1425--1448; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium; Ellison et al. 2006 Mol Phylogen Evol 39:688--705
Trifolium appendiculatum Lojac.
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, possibly short-lived perennial herb, generally robust. Stem: generally ascending, 1--5(10) dm. Leaf: cauline; stipules deeply cut; leaflets obovate, elliptic, or obcordate. Inflorescence: head-like, included or exserted from leaves, 1.5--3 cm wide, 10--many-flowered; involucre wheel-shaped, generally well developed. Flower: calyx 6--10 mm, bell-shaped, tube 10--many-veined, lobes all or some generally > tube, entire or toothed, bristle-tipped; corolla 9--17 mm, lavender to purple, tips generally white. Fruit: stalk-like base short or 0. Seed: 1--2.
Ecology: Permanently wet or inundated sites, including meadows, marshes; Elevation: 50--2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoR, SN, GV, CW, SW, SNE; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Commonly confused with Trifolium wormskioldii.
Synonyms: Trifolium appendiculatum Lojac. var. appendiculatum; Trifolium variegatum var. major Lojac.; Trifolium variegatum var. melananthum (Hook. & Arn.) Greene; Trifolium variegatum phase 2 in TJM (1993)
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael A. Vincent
Reference: Foster & Vincent 2018 Madroño 65:141--150; Morgan et al. 2014 Novon 23:65--69; Tressel et al. 2022 Madroño 69:327--340; Vincent & Gillett 2023 FNANM 11(2):914--974
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Michael A. Vincent 2023, Trifolium appendiculatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 12, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=47180, accessed on February 24, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on February 24, 2024.

Trifolium appendiculatum
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©2010 Vernon Smith
Trifolium appendiculatum
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©2011 Vernon Smith
Trifolium appendiculatum
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©2015 Vernon Smith

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Geographic subdivisions for Trifolium appendiculatum:
NCo, NCoR, SN, GV, CW, SW, SNE
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).