Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Trifolium bifidum

PINOLE CLOVER


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: LEGUME FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TrifoliumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: CLOVER
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, unarmed. Leaf: generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole, generally papery or membranous; leaflets generally 3, occasionally 5--9, +- toothed or wavy. Inflorescence: raceme (generally umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, generally involucred, generally peduncled; inflorescence bracts 0 or forming vestigial ring or involucre; flower bracts present or not. Flower: generally spreading to erect, generally becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, occasionally yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit: generally indehiscent but generally breaking, short, plump, generally enclosed in corolla; base generally stalk-like. Seed: 1--6.
Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael A. Vincent
Reference: Foster & Vincent 2018 Madroño 65:141--150; Morgan et al. 2014 Novon 23:65--69; Tressel et al. 2022 Madroño 69:327--340; Vincent & Gillett 2023 FNANM 11(2):914--974
Unabridged Reference: Gillett 1980 Canad J Bot 58:1425--1448; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium; Ellison et al. 2006 Mol Phylogen Evol 39:688--705
Trifolium bifidum A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, glabrous or sparsely finely hairy. Stem: sprawling to erect. Leaf: cauline; stipules short-awned; leaflets 1--2 cm, oblanceolate to obovate, tip generally notched. Inflorescence: head- or umbel-like, 7--15 mm wide, generally 5--many-flowered; axis tip generally +- exserted; pedicels 1--2 mm; flowers becoming reflexed. Flower: calyx 3.5--5 mm, tube 0.8--1.4 mm, glabrous, lobes >> tube, +- 0.2 mm wide at base, awn-like, bristle-tipped, hairs generally few, fine; corolla 6--9 mm, dull yellow to pink-purple. Seed: 1--2. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Open, grassy areas, oak chaparral, forest; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc SNH, Teh); Distribution Outside California: to southern Washington. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
Synonyms: Trifolium bifidum A. Gray var. bifidum; Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens Greene
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael A. Vincent
Reference: Foster & Vincent 2018 Madroño 65:141--150; Morgan et al. 2014 Novon 23:65--69; Tressel et al. 2022 Madroño 69:327--340; Vincent & Gillett 2023 FNANM 11(2):914--974
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Trifolium beckwithii
Next taxon: Trifolium bolanderi


Please use this Google Form for Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Michael A. Vincent 2023, Trifolium bifidum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 12, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=47053, accessed on July 18, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 18, 2024.

Trifolium bifidum  
var. decipiens
click for image enlargement
©2015 Aaron Schusteff
Trifolium bifidum  
var. decipiens
click for image enlargement
©2004 Carol W. Witham
Trifolium bifidum  
var. decipiens
click for image enlargement
©2004 Carol W. Witham
Trifolium bifidum  
var. decipiens
click for image enlargement
©2008 Keir Morse
Trifolium bifidum  
var. bifidum
click for image enlargement
©2009 Aaron Schusteff

More photos of Trifolium bifidum
in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Trifolium bifidum:
CA-FP (exc SNH, Teh)
MAP CONTROLS
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).






 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

MAP LEGEND
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).