Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Thermopsis macrophylla

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ThermopsisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, unarmed, generally hairy, rhizomed. Stem: erect; lower nodes leafless. Leaf: palmately compound; lower stipules clasping stem, scarious, others not clasping stem, green; leaflets 3, widely ovate to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme, terminal; bracts like stipules, +- persistent. Flower: calyx lobes 5, upper 2 +- fused; corolla yellow; stamens 10, free. Fruit: erect or spreading, slowly dehiscent, oblong, flat; base stalk-like base present; margin often wavy. Seed: 3--10.
Species In Genus: +- 20 species: temperate North America, central and eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: like a lupine)
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Chen et al. 1994 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 81:714--742
Thermopsis macrophylla Hook. & Arn.
Habit: Plant 12--25 dm, gray-hairy. Stem: erect, stout, branches at base. Leaf: leaflets 4--10 cm, densely long-soft-wavy-hairy, lateral veins 12--16. Inflorescence: 25--60 cm; bracts < 5 mm wide; pedicels 2--4 mm; flowers 3--5 per node. Fruit: straight, ascending, densely hairy. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Sandstone, chaparral; Elevation: 1000--1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: WTR (Santa Ynez Mtns). Flowering Time: May--Jun
Synonyms: Thermopsis macrophylla var. agnina J.T. Howell; Thermopsis macrophylla var. macrophylla
Jepson eFlora Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Chen et al. 1994 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 81:714--742
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Thermopsis macrophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 12, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 12, 2021.

Thermopsis macrophylla
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Thermopsis macrophylla
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Thermopsis macrophylla var. macrophylla
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Thermopsis macrophylla
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© 2008 Steve Matson
Thermopsis macrophylla
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
Thermopsis macrophylla
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Thermopsis macrophylla in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Thermopsis macrophylla:
WTR (Santa Ynez Mtns).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).