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Vascular Plants of California
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Stemodia durantifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: +- 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Diplacus, Erythranthe, Limosella, Lindernia, Mimetanthe, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Mohavea moved to Antirrhinum. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: StemodiaView Description 

Habit: [Annual] perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: 1--many, ascending to erect. Leaf: generally opposite, clasping, +- dentate to pinnately-lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in terminal interrupted spikes, 2--4 per node; bracts 2 proximal to calyx. Flower: sepals 5, free; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, white to violet or purple, tube 4-angled, upper lip 2-lobed, arched, lower lip reflexed; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, anther sacs well separated by thick tissue; stigma lobes 2, flat. Fruit: loculicidal, +- ovoid. Seed: many, surface net-like.
Etymology: (Latin: from stemodiacra, stamens with 2 tips)
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax
Unabridged Reference: Turner & Cowan 1993 Phytologia 74:61--103
Stemodia durantifolia (L.) Sw.
Habit: Plant glandular-hairy. Stem: 10--100 cm. Leaf: 2--3 per node, +- sessile, 2--4 cm, 5--20 mm wide, +- lanceolate, +- dentate; reduced distally on stem. Inflorescence: pedicels 2--12 mm; bracts +- = sepals. Flower: sepals 5--7 mm, lanceolate, long-tapered; corolla 7--10 mm, violet to purple. Fruit: 4--5 mm, ovoid-cylindric.
Ecology: Riparian habitats, on wet sand or rocks, drying streambeds; Elevation: < 400 m. Bioregional Distribution: PR, w DSon; Distribution Outside California: Arizona, Texas, to South America; introduced elsewhere. Flowering Time: All year Note: Stemodia durantifolia var. chilensis (Benth.) C.C. Cowan in Chile.
Jepson eFlora Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Stemodia durantifolia

botanical illustration including Stemodia durantifolia

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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax 2012, Stemodia durantifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 16, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 16, 2024.

Stemodia durantifolia
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©2011 Dylan Neubauer
Stemodia durantifolia
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©2017 Keir Morse
Stemodia durantifolia
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse
Stemodia durantifolia
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse
Stemodia durantifolia
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse

More photos of Stemodia durantifolia
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Stemodia durantifolia:
PR, w DSon
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).