Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Sporobolus indicus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: SporobolusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally ascending to erect, 2--20 dm, generally tufted, +- solid in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal; cauline few, ascending or curving away; distal sheath margin and collar glabrous or hairy; ligule < 1 mm, hairy or membranous, fringed; blade flat to inrolled, generally glabrous or scabrous, occasionally short-soft-hairy. Inflorescence: terminal, also occasionally axillary, panicle- or spike-like, generally partly enclosed by sheath; branches spreading or appressed. Spikelet: < 6 mm, generally pale to gray-green or +- purple; glumes generally unequal, upper < or > lemma, membranous to translucent, 1-veined; floret bisexual, generally breaking above glumes; lemma texture generally like glumes, 1(3)-veined; palea < or > lemma. Fruit: utricle-like, when wet gelatinous with seed emergent from split ovary wall.
Species In Genus: +- 150 species: America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia. Etymology: (Greek: to throw seed, from deciduous seeds)
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael Curto
Reference: Peterson et al. 2003 FNANM 25:115--139
Unabridged Reference: Baaijens & Veldkamp 1991 Blumea 35: 393--458; Colbry 1957 Cont US Natl Mus 34:1--24; Veldkamp 1990 Taxon 39:327--328
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: tufted, erect, 3--6(12) dm. Leaf: base dull, green to brown, margin glabrous or ciliate, collar glabrous; ligule < 0.5 mm, fringe hairs to 1 mm; blade 6--30 cm, 1--5 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally terminal, exserted or base sheathed, contracted, dense, branches and spikelets to near base; 1° branches appressed, lowest generally < 2 cm, > internodes, 2° appressed, bearing 3°, spikelets to near base, appearing dense. Spikelet: 1.5--2.5 mm, green or lead-colored; glumes ovate, tip obtuse, often jagged, unequal, lower 0.5--1 mm, upper 0.8--1.6, < 0.6 × lemma; lemma 1.8--2.5 mm, glabrous, ovate, tip obtuse; anthers 0.5--1 mm. Fruit: 1--1.2 mm, 4-angled, striate, red-brown. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Open, disturbed areas, roadsides; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: ScV, n SnJV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, PR; Distribution Outside California: to southeastern United States, Caribbean, Mexico; pantropical. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov
Synonyms: Sporobolus creber DeNardi; Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. creber (DeNardi) Veldkamp; Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc., misappl.
Unabridged Note: Plants from ScV (Glenn Co.) with collar hairs to 2 mm, panicle interrupted, main axis evident, spikelets 1--1.5 mm, lemma 1.1--1.5 mm, anthers 0.4--0.6 mm, fruit 0.7--0.8 mm conform to Sporobolus indicus var. creber (DeNardi) Veldkamp [Sporobolus creber DeNardi, e.g. FNANM 25:124], a minor variant from Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria), Malesia, New Caledonia, Fiji.
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael Curto
Reference: Peterson et al. 2003 FNANM 25:115--139
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Sporobolus flexuosus
Next taxon: Sporobolus vaginiflorus

Name Search


Citation for this treatment: Michael Curto 2012, Sporobolus indicus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=45308, accessed on February 26, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 26, 2020.

Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Sporobolus indicus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Sporobolus indicus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Sporobolus indicus:
ScV, n SnJV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, PR
1. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
3. Filling of Jepson subdivision polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
4. Moving the cursor over any numbered cluster will show the range boundary of the included specimens (with a blue polygon).
5. Marker clustering can be turned off by clicking this link:      Marker Clustering OFF
WARNING: Turning this off might cause maps with large numbers of specimens to load slowly.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


View elevation by latitude chart

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).