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Vascular Plants of California
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Spiranthes romanzoffiana
HOODED LADIES' TRESSES


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornament, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SpiranthesView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: LADIES' TRESSES
Habit: Erect. Leaf: Basal, sometimes also ascending-cauline, linear to lanceolate [ovate, eastern North America], 0 to several at flowering. Inflorescence: spike, flowers in generally dense to lax spiral; bracts < to > flowers, concave around ovary, gradually reduced upward, lanceolate. Flower: Generally white, sometime ivory-green to cream [pink, Asia], sepals, lateral petals narrow-lanceolate; upper sepal +- fused to lateral petals, lower sepals +- free, +- = lip; lip with 2 small basal nectar glands, not spurred; column < lip. Fruit: Ovoid.
Etymology: (Greek: coiled flowers)
eFlora Treatment Author: Matthew C. Pace & Kenneth M. Cameron
Reference: Sheviak 2012 Native Orchid Conf J 9(4):1--6, Sheviak 2013 Native Orchid Conf J 10(2):1--31; Pace & Cameron 2019 Taxon 68:199--217
Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 5--60 cm. Leaf: linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: dense, flowers tightly spiraled. Flower: ovate in profile, white to ivory; sepals sweeping upward with tips meeting the upper sepal and petals (forming 'hood'); lip broadly fiddle-shaped, strongly recurved, centrally white to greenish-yellow, often with lime-green veins. Fruit: light brown. Chromosomes: 2n=44,88.
Ecology: Bogs, wet meadows, freshwater marshes, fens, seeps, wet roadsides, edges of open conifer forests, coastal dune swales; Elevation: < 3300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN exc Teh, CW exc SCoRI, MP, SNE; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, northeastern North America, New Mexico; northwestern Europe. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep Note: Floral hood (upper sepal) development is occasionally poor; in such plants, flowers are still white and the lip is fiddle-shaped with a broadly dilated tip (the margin sometimes brown, crisped) and lime-green veins.
Jepson eFlora Author: Matthew C. Pace & Kenneth M. Cameron
Reference: Sheviak 2012 Native Orchid Conf J 9(4):1--6, Sheviak 2013 Native Orchid Conf J 10(2):1--31; Pace & Cameron 2019 Taxon 68:199--217
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Spiranthes porrifolia
Next taxon: Spiranthes ×sierrae

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Botanical illustration including Spiranthes romanzoffiana

botanical illustration including Spiranthes romanzoffiana

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Citation for this treatment: Matthew C. Pace & Kenneth M. Cameron 2023, Spiranthes romanzoffiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 12, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=45264, accessed on June 20, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 20, 2024.

Spiranthes romanzoffiana
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©2009 Gary A. Monroe
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
click for enlargement
©2021 Barry Rice
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
click for enlargement
©1995 Gary A. Monroe
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
click for enlargement
©2009 Gary A. Monroe
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
click for enlargement
©2022 Barry Rice

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Geographic subdivisions for Spiranthes romanzoffiana:
NW, CaR, SN exc Teh, CW exc SCoRI, MP, SNE
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).