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Vascular Plants of California
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Madia subspicata


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MadiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: TARWEED, TARPLANT
Habit: Annual, 0.5--25 dm. Stem: erect. Leaf: proximal opposite, often in rosettes, distal alternate, sessile; blades lanceolate or oblong-linear to linear, generally entire, seldom toothed, coarse- to soft-hairy, generally also glandular. Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, occasionally obscurely so (discoid), in flat-topped or panicle-, raceme-, or spike-like clusters; involucre 1--10+ mm diam, generally +- spheric to ovoid or urn-shaped; phyllaries in 1 series, lance-linear to oblanceolate, each mostly or wholly enfolding a subtended ray ovary, falling with fruit, coarse-hairy, generally glandular; receptacle flat to convex, glabrous or minutely bristly; paleae in 1 series between ray and disk flowers, +- fused or free, phyllary-like but more scarious, generally persistent (falling readily in Madia radiata). Ray Flower: (0)1--22; corolla generally +- yellow, ray sometimes maroon or +- purple adaxially, proximally, or throughout. Disk Flower: 1--80+, bisexual or staminate; corolla generally +- yellow, sometimes +- purple, tube <= throat, lobes deltate; anther +- dark purple or yellow to +- brown, tip oblong to +- ovate or +- semicircular; style glabrous proximal to branches, tips narrowly triangular, hairy.; anther base acute to cordate or sagittate. Fruit: ray fruit generally compressed side-to-side, generally +- 3-angled (rarely cylindric), +- club-shaped, often arched, glabrous, tip occasionally beaked, pappus 0; disk fruit 0 or similar to ray fruit, sometimes obovoid, often +- straight, tip not beaked, pappus 0.
Etymology: (Native Chilean name) Note: Generally self-fertile (except Madia elegans and Madia radiata). Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Anisocarpus, Harmonia, Hemizonella, Jensia, Kyhosia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:303--308
Unabridged Reference: Carlquist et al. 2003 Tarweeds and silverswords: evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae)
Madia subspicata D.D. Keck
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 5--60 cm. Stem: proximally +- soft-hairy, distally glandular-hairy, glands +- yellow, lateral branches not exceeding main stem. Leaf: 2--7 cm, 1--5 mm wide, linear to lance-linear. Inflorescence: heads not showy, in narrow raceme- or spike-like clusters, peduncle 0 or lengths generally < 2 × heads; involucre 6--8 mm, spheric or ovoid, +- coarse-hairy and thick-stalked-glandular, glands golden yellow; phyllary tips +- erect, grooved along midvein or flat; paleae free or fused < 1/2. Ray Flower: 5--8; corolla pale yellow, ray 1--2.5 mm. Disk Flower: 5--15, bisexual; corolla 3--3.5 mm, hairy; anthers yellow to +- brown. Fruit: ray fruit compressed, +- club-shaped, black or brown, occasionally purple-mottled, dull, beakless; disk fruit similar. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Grassland, open woodland, often in shade; Elevation: 50--800 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRF, n&c SNF, ScV (Sutter Buttes). Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
Jepson eFlora Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:303--308
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Madia subspicata

botanical illustration including Madia subspicata

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Citation for this treatment: Bruce G. Baldwin 2022, Madia subspicata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 10, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=4057, accessed on September 26, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 26, 2022.

No expert verified images found for Madia subspicata.



Geographic subdivisions for Madia subspicata:
CaRF, n&c SNF, ScV (Sutter Buttes).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).