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Vascular Plants of California
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Piperia candida
WHITE-FLOWERED REIN-ORCHID


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PiperiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: PIPERIA
Habit: Plant 10--130 cm; tubers, 1--4 cm, generally +- round; stem bracts lance-linear to ovate. Leaf: at flower 0 or +- basal, not in rosette, 2--5, linear to widely oblanceolate. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric, flowers not in spiral; flower bract generally < flower. Flower: fragrance, when present, generally at night; perianth white to green; sepals generally 2--5 mm, 1--2 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals +- = sepals, spreading to erect, lip spurred, pointed forward, down (or upcurved); column < lip; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180°. Fruit: ascending to erect.
Species In Genus: 10 species: North America. Etymology: (Charles V. Piper, American botanist, 1867--1926) Note: Some species difficult to separate.
eFlora Treatment Author: James D. Ackerman & Robert Lauri
Reference: Ackerman & Morgan 2002 FNANM 26:571--577
Unabridged Reference: Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5: 205--211
Piperia candida Rand. Morgan & Ackerman
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 10--60 cm. Leaf: basal 5--18 cm, 11--35 mm wide. Inflorescence: (2)10--30 cm, +- 1-sided, +- congested to open. Flower: sepals white, with faint green midvein or not, upper +- pointed forward; lateral petals +- pointed forward to +- ascending, translucent, white, midvein white or faintly green, lip (1.5)2--3(4) mm, +- ovate, +- obtuse, recurved toward spur, white, spur 1.5--3.5 mm, pointed down or curved +- forward. Chromosomes: n=21.
Ecology: Open to shady sites, conifer and mixed-evergreen forest; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, sw SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska. Flowering Time: May--Sep
Jepson eFlora Author: James D. Ackerman & Robert Lauri
Reference: Ackerman & Morgan 2002 FNANM 26:571--577
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Piperia candida

botanical illustration including Piperia candida

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Citation for this treatment: James D. Ackerman & Robert Lauri 2012, Piperia candida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38350, accessed on February 19, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on February 19, 2020.

Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2016 Barry Rice
Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2016 Barry Rice
Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2013 Aaron Schusteff
Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2016 Barry Rice
Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2010 Aaron Schusteff
Piperia candida
click for enlargement
© 2010 Aaron Schusteff

More photos of Piperia candida in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Piperia candida:
NW, sw SnFrB
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).