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Pectocarya penicillata

NORTHERN PECTOCARYA


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: PectocaryaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: PECTOCARYA, COMBSEED
Habit: Annual. Stem: 2--40 cm, strigose, breaking at nodes or not. Leaf: generally alternate, generally 0.5--4 cm, +- linear, strigose to sharp-bristled. Inflorescence: bracted or not; pedicel in fruit generally free from nutlets, generally recurved. Flower: basal cleistogamous flowers generally 0; calyx generally < fruit, lobes free, not arched over 1 nutlet, with hooked or straight bristles, in fruit +- equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others; corolla funnel-shaped, white, limb 0.5--2.5 mm diam, appendages white or yellow; style attached to receptacle, unbranched, generally persistent, stigma 1, head-like. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, generally paired, often dissimilar in shape, ornamentation, margin width, spreading, 1--4.5 mm, generally compressed, often laterally winged, wings sometimes toothed, marginal bristles straight or hooked at tip.
Etymology: (Greek: comb nut, from bristly to dentate nutlet margins of some species) Note: Flowers generally of 1 kind with observable white corolla occurring on the cauline inflorescence sections, except for Pectocarya heterocarpa, Pectocarya peninsularis, which also produce cleistogamous flowers, without an observable corolla, that occur at stem bases and produce nutlet shapes not represented in the diagnostic key. Pectocarya pusilla now treated as Gruvelia pusilla.
eFlora Treatment Author: C. Matt Guilliams & Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Veno 1979 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ CA Los Angeles; Guilliams et al. 2013 Aliso 31:1--13.
Pectocarya penicillata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC.
NATIVE
Stem: prostrate to decumbent, 2--25 cm. Inflorescence: pedicel in fruit ascending, 1.3--2.5 mm. Fruit: nutlets 1.6--2.4 mm, oblanceolate, straight, +- equal in width, bristled at tip to above +- middle; margins wavy, erect to incurved, not or +- dentate. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed sites, roadsides; Elevation: 90--2100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc NCo, CCo), MP (exc Wrn), W&I, D; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, western Wyoming, Arizona, northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--May
Jepson eFlora Author: C. Matt Guilliams & Ronald B. Kelley
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Pectocarya linearis subsp. ferocula
Next taxon: Pectocarya peninsularis

Botanical illustration including Pectocarya penicillatabotanical illustration including Pectocarya penicillata


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Citation for this treatment: C. Matt Guilliams & Ronald B. Kelley 2021, Pectocarya penicillata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=36530, accessed on July 18, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 18, 2024.

Pectocarya penicillata
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©2011 Steve Matson
Pectocarya penicillata
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©2010 Thomas Stoughton
Pectocarya penicillata
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©2010 Neal Kramer
Pectocarya penicillata
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©2008 Keir Morse
Pectocarya penicillata
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©2009 Neal Kramer

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Geographic subdivisions for Pectocarya penicillata:
CA-FP (exc NCo, CCo), MP (exc Wrn), W&I, D
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).






 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).