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Vascular Plants of California
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Orthocarpus cuspidatus


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BROOMRAPE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 101 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OrthocarpusView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, +- 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally +- notched. Seed: generally 8--15, often +- curved, +- keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.
Species In Genus: 9 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: straight fruit) Note: Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560--582
Orthocarpus cuspidatus Greene
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 10--40 cm, puberulent to scabrous, sparsely glandular, becoming +- purple-tinged. Stem: simple to much-branched, generally slender. Leaf: 10--50 mm, +- lanceolate; proximal entire, distal with 3 deep, linear lobes. Inflorescence: 2--10 cm, dense; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 10--20 mm, +- ovate, +- purple-pink on distal 1/3 of distal-most bracts, with 2 narrow, +- basal lobes, central lobe 7--15 mm wide, tip abruptly pointed. Flower: calyx 7--10 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 9--25 mm, exserted or not, lips +- purple-pink, densely puberulent, beak straight, without cylindric, hooked tip, 3--8 mm, 0--4 mm > lower lip, lower lip +- pouched, teeth 1--2 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included. Fruit: 6--8 mm. Seed: dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=28.

Jepson eFlora Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560--582
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Next taxon: Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii

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Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard 2012, Orthocarpus cuspidatus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=35515, accessed on June 30, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 30, 2022.

Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cryptanthus
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cryptanthus
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© 2002 California Academy of Sciences
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
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© 1993 Gary A. Monroe
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cryptanthus
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
click for enlargement
© 1993 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Orthocarpus cuspidatus:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).