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Vascular Plants of California
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Nicotiana quadrivalvis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia). Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NicotianaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: TOBACCO
Habit: Annual to small tree. Leaf: +- basal or not; margin entire, +- wavy or not. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, terminal; lower bracts leaf-like. Flower: calyx 5-lobed, +- enlarging, not fully enclosing fruit; corolla generally radial, generally funnel-shaped to salverform; stamens 5, equal or 1 smaller. Fruit: septicidal capsule. Seed: many, minute, angled.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: generally America; Nicotiana tabacum L. widely cultivated, tobacco of commerce. Etymology: (J. Nicot, said to have introduced tobacco to Eur, 1530--1600) Toxicity: Seriously TOXIC to livestock.
Unabridged Reference: Goodspeed 1954 Chron Bot 16:1--536
Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
Habit: Annual 3--20 dm, glandular-hairy. Leaf: 4--15 cm; basal, lower cauline short-petioled, elliptic to ovate; upper sessile, reduced. Inflorescence: bracts < 35 mm, +- linear. Flower: calyx 15--20 mm, 10-ridged, lobes narrowly lanceolate, 1 > tube or not; corolla +- salverform, white, green- or violet-tinged, tube 25--50 mm, limb 20--50 mm wide; stamens unequal, attached at various levels above tube middle. Fruit: 15--20 mm.
Ecology: Open, well-drained washes, slopes; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, D; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, central United States. Flowering Time: May--Oct Note: Widely cultivated by western America native people; cultivated plants sometimes recognized, with Nicotiana quadrivalvis var. bigelovii (Torr.) DeWolf for wild pls.
Synonyms: Nicotiana bigelovii (Torr.) S. Watson; Nicotiana bigelovii var. wallacei A. Gray; Nicotiana quadrivalvis var. bigelovii (Torr.) DeWolf; Nicotiana quadrivalvis var. quadrivalvis
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael H. Nee
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Nicotiana obtusifolia
Next taxon: Nicotiana sylvestris

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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2012, Nicotiana quadrivalvis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 11, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 11, 2021.

Nicotiana quadrivalvis
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Nicotiana quadrivalvis
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Nicotiana quadrivalvis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Nicotiana quadrivalvis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Nicotiana quadrivalvis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Nicotiana quadrivalvis
click for enlargement
© 2016 Neal Kramer

More photos of Nicotiana quadrivalvis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Nicotiana quadrivalvis:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).