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Vascular Plants of California
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Nemacladus rigidus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NemacladusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally +- brown or +- purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: +- raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla +- radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2--12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
Species In Genus: 18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. Etymology: (Greek: thread-like branch) Note: In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged Note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1--134
Nemacladus rigidus Curran
Habit: Spreading to decumbent, 2--4(9) cm, branched from base. Stem: spreading, stout; base shiny, purple. Leaf: 5--10 mm, elliptic to oblanceolate, fleshy, entire to scalloped, hairy, narrowed to wide petiole. Inflorescence: axis strongly zigzag; bracts 2--3 mm, widely elliptic, spreading or reflexed; pedicels 5--12 mm, 0.2 mm diam, spreading, straight, in age curved. Flower: not inverted; hypanthium 1 mm; 2 adaxial, middle abaxial sepals linear-elliptic, 0.7 mm, 2 flanking abaxial sepals widely triangular, 1.4 mm; corolla divided to base, 2-lipped, white, 3 adaxial lobes erect, 0.2--0.4 mm, ovate, glabrous, veins and tips maroon, 2 abaxial 0.4--0.5 mm, oblong, acute; filaments declined, 1.2--1.6 mm, tip +- curved, glabrous, appendage pad near base of filaments, cells wide, blunt, anthers 0.2--0.3 mm; ovary +- inferior in fruit. Fruit: 3--4 mm, base oblique, tip pointed. Seed: 0.6--0.7 mm, elliptic, with wide zigzag ridges alternate pitted rows.
Ecology: Bare soil, sand; Elevation: 200--2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: GB; Distribution Outside California: eastern Oregon, Idaho, Nevada. Flowering Time: May--Jun
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy R. Morin
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Nemacladus rigidus

botanical illustration including Nemacladus rigidus


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Nemacladus rigidus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 29, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 29, 2021.

Nemacladus rigidus
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus rigidus
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus rigidus
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus rigidus
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© 2010 James Morefield
Nemacladus rigidus
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus rigidus
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson

More photos of Nemacladus rigidus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Nemacladus rigidus:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).