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Vascular Plants of California
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Mucronea perfoliata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MucroneaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, erect to spreading, glandular-hairy. Leaf: basal; blades entire, generally narrow, awns 0; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: terminal, cyme-like; bracts fused, on +- 1 side of or around node, awned; peduncles 0; involucres 1--3, (2)3--4-angled, tubular, occasionally swollen, teeth (2)3--4, unequal, awned. Flower: 1(2), hairy; perianth white to pink, lobes 6, entire or fringed; stamens 6 or 9. Fruit: generally elliptic, glabrous, brown to black; embryo straight.
Etymology: (Latin: sharp point, for awns of bracts, involucres)
eFlora Treatment Author: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti
Mucronea perfoliata (A. Gray) A. Heller
Habit: Plant (0.2)0.3--2(3) dm, 0.5--5 dm diam. Leaf: blades (1)2--5 cm, (0.2)0.3--1.2(2) cm wide. Inflorescence: lower bracts 3, awns 0.3--1.2(1.5) mm; involucre 4-angled, ribbed, generally transversely ridged, swollen basally, 3--5(6) mm. Flower: 1.5--3(3.5) mm, hairy; stamens 9. Fruit: 2--3 mm. Chromosomes: n=19, 20.
Ecology: Common. Sand or gravel; Elevation: 100--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SNF, Teh, SnJV, SCoRI, n WTR, w DMoj. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
Synonyms: Chorizanthe perfoliata A. Gray; Mucronea perfoliata var. opaca Hoover
Jepson eFlora Author: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Mucronea perfoliata

botanical illustration including Mucronea perfoliata


Citation for this treatment: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti 2012, Mucronea perfoliata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 01, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 01, 2022.

Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2020 Neal Kramer
Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2016 Aaron Schusteff
Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Mucronea perfoliata
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie

More photos of Mucronea perfoliata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Mucronea perfoliata:
s SNF, Teh, SnJV, SCoRI, n WTR, w DMoj.
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).