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Vascular Plants of California
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Mirabilis nyctaginea


Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill.
WAIF
Stem: erect, < 10 dm, glabrous to +- hairy. Leaf: petioled or +- sessile; blade < 10 cm, ovate to cordate, +- glabrous. Inflorescence: umbels in forked clusters; peduncles hairy; involucre cup-shaped, 3--5-flowered, enlarged, 10--15 mm, papery in fruit, base short-hairy, lobes +- widely ovate, glabrous; bracts 5, +- 1/2--3/4 fused. Flower: perianth +- 10 mm, broadly funnel-shaped, white or pale pink. Fruit: 4--6 mm, broadly club-shaped, hairy; ribs 5, wide, wrinkled or warty between.
Ecology: Disturbed places; Elevation: < 400 m. Bioregional Distribution: e SCo (esp San Bernardino Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to central United States, northern Mexico. Note: Reported and expected but evidently not collected in California.
Synonyms: Oxybaphus nyctagineus (Michx.) Sweet
Jepson eFlora Author: Andy Murdock
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Mirabilis multiflora var. pubescens
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Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2012, Mirabilis nyctaginea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=33818, accessed on September 20, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 20, 2021.

Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Mirabilis nyctaginea
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Mirabilis nyctaginea in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis nyctaginea:
e SCo (esp San Bernardino Co.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).