Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Ludwigia hexapetala

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: LudwigiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub or emergent aquatic, often floating, rooting at nodes. Leaf: alternate to opposite. Inflorescence: spike; flowers 1 per bract. Flower: radial; hypanthium 0; sepals 4--5(7), persistent; petals (0)4--5(7), white to yellow; stamens 4 or 10(12), pollen generally shed singly (in California); stigma club-shaped to spheric. Fruit: irregularly dehiscing; wall thick or thin. Seed: free or embedded in woody piece of fruit wall.
Etymology: (C.G. Ludwig, German botanist, physician, 1709--1773) Note: Many polyploids.
eFlora Treatment Author: Peter C. Hoch & Brenda J. Grewell
Reference: Raven 1963 Reinwardtia 6:327--427
Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, H. Gu, & P.H. Raven
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub, emergent aquatic, 3--20(40) dm, matted, with thick white spongy roots at floating nodes, creeping to erect on land, often climbing on other pls. Stem: prostrate to erect, flower shoot erect, simple or branched distally, glabrous (floating) to spreading-hairy (erect). Leaf: alternate, 3--11(15) cm; petiole (0)5--30(56) mm; blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate or widely obovate, entire, +- glabrous, tip generally mucronate. Inflorescence: bracts lanceolate to lance-ovate; pedicel (9)13--25(85) mm. Flower: sepals 5(6), 12--19 mm; petals 5(6), 18--29 mm; stamens 10(12) in 2 unequal sets, anthers 1.5--4.5 mm. Fruit: reflexed, falling with pedicel; 14--26 mm, cylindric, tapered to pedicel, +- spreading-hairy. Seed: 1.2--1.5 mm, embedded in woody inner fruit wall. Chromosomes: 2n=80.
Ecology: Lake margins, wetlands; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, s NCoRO, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo; Distribution Outside California: Oregon, Washington, southeastern United States (native?), Central America, southern South America, Europe. Flowering Time: May--Dec Note: Invasive weed.
Synonyms: Jussiaea uruguayensis Cambess., in part; Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz
Jepson eFlora Author: Peter C. Hoch & Brenda J. Grewell
Reference: Raven 1963 Reinwardtia 6:327--427
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
View the CDFA Pest Rating page for Ludwigia hexapetala
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

Previous taxon: Ludwigia grandiflora
Next taxon: Ludwigia palustris

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Botanical illustration including Ludwigia hexapetala

botanical illustration including Ludwigia hexapetala

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Citation for this treatment: Peter C. Hoch & Brenda J. Grewell 2012, Ludwigia hexapetala, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2024.

Ludwigia hexapetala
click for enlargement
©2014 Neal Kramer
Ludwigia hexapetala
click for enlargement
©2014 Neal Kramer
Ludwigia hexapetala
click for enlargement
©2014 Neal Kramer
Ludwigia hexapetala
click for enlargement
©2014 Neal Kramer
Ludwigia hexapetala
click for enlargement
©2014 Neal Kramer

More photos of Ludwigia hexapetala
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Ludwigia hexapetala:
NCo, s NCoRO, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).