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Vascular Plants of California
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Hyparrhenia hirta

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HyparrheniaView Description 

Habit: [Annual] perennial herb, generally cespitose. Stem: erect, densely branched. Leaf: cauline; sheaths generally < internodes; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded. Inflorescence: raceme-like, digitate, branches paired, long-stalked from upper axils, hairy. Spikelet: in pairs; lower 1--2 pairs similar, staminate, awn 0; upper pairs dissimilar, sessile spikelet bisexual, glumes > lemmas, lanceolate, hairy, florets 2, lower vestigial, upper fertile, lemma translucent, awned; stalked spikelet staminate or sterile, awn 0; pairs breaking as a unit or spikelets breaking below glumes.
Species In Genus: 55 species: tropical Africa, Asia. Etymology: (Greek: below masculine, from basal staminate spikelets)
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth M. Skendzic
Reference: Barkworth 2003 FNANM 25:678--679
Unabridged Reference: Clayton 1969 Kew Bull Addit Ser 2 HMSO, London
Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf
Habit: Rhizomes short. Stem: +- clumped, 3--10 dm. Leaf: blade 5--30 cm, < 3 mm wide, +- folded or inrolled. Inflorescence: 2--4 cm, stalk long-soft-hairy, subtended by expanded sheath. Spikelet: glumes densely hairy; sessile spikelet of lower pairs 5--5.6 mm; sessile spikelet of upper pairs 4--4.5 mm, lemma hairy in upper 1/2, awn 1--3.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=30,44,45.
Ecology: Disturbed sites, canyons near urban areas; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (Los Angeles, San Diego cos.); Distribution Outside California: native to warm temperate Eurasia, Africa. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Elizabeth M. Skendzic
Reference: Barkworth 2003 FNANM 25:678--679
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Elizabeth M. Skendzic 2012, Hyparrhenia hirta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 13, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 13, 2022.

Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Hyparrhenia hirta
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson

More photos of Hyparrhenia hirta in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Hyparrhenia hirta:
SCo (Los Angeles, San Diego cos.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).