Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Hydrocotyle verticillata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AraliaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree, woody vine; juvenile, flower plants generally unlike. Stem: generally branched. Leaf: simple or compound, generally alternate; stipules +- fused to +- sheathing, petiole base or 0. Inflorescence: umbels 1 to panicled; bracts deciduous or not. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, generally < 5 mm; sepals generally 5, fused at base, inconspicuous, persistent; petals generally 5, free, +- white to green, deciduous; stamens generally 5, generally alternate petals; ovary inferior, chambers 1--15, 1-ovuled, styles as many as chambers, free or fused, persistent. Fruit: berry or drupe, occasionally flat, dry.
Genera In Family: 47 genera, 1350 species: especially tropics, subtropics medicinal (e.g., Panax, ginseng; Aralia, sarsaparilla), ornamental (e.g., Aralia, Fatsia, Hedera, Polyscias).
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: HydrocotyleView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, creeping or sprawling, glabrous [hairy]; rhizomes or stem rooting at nodes. Leaf: simple; petiole scarious-stipuled, not sheathing; blade +- round, peltate or not, entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: simple umbels, occasionally spikes, open or dense; bracts 0 or inconspicuous; pedicels 0--many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes 0 or minute; petals obtuse or acute, +- green to +- yellow-white or +- purple, tip not incurved. Fruit: elliptic to round, very compressed side-to-side; ribs +- equal, thread-like, distinct or not; oil tubes 0, fruit wall with individual oil cells; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face flat to convex.
Etymology: (Greek: water cup, apparently from leaf shape) Note: Hydrocotyle moschata G. Forst., Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, and Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. occasionally reported as lawn weeds.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Lincoln Constance
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.
Habit: Creeping. Leaf: petiole 0.5--25 cm, slender; blade 1--4 cm wide, round, peltate, shallowly, crenately, +- equally 8--13-lobed, or margin crenate. Inflorescence: peduncles 1.5--20 cm; spikes, occasionally forked, to 15-flowered, flowers whorled; pedicels 0 or short. Fruit: 1--3 mm, elliptic; ribs acute, evident.
Ecology: Lake margins, ponds, slow-moving streams, canals, seeps, springs, marshes; Elevation: < 1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRO, n&c SN, s SNF, GV, CW (exc SCoRI), SW (exc ChI, SnJt), W&I, D; Distribution Outside California: to eastern North America, South America, Hawaii, southern Africa. Flowering Time: Apr--Sep
Synonyms: Hydrocotyle verticillata var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fernald
Jepson eFlora Author: Robert E. Preston & Lincoln Constance
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Hydrocotyle verticillata

botanical illustration including Hydrocotyle verticillata


Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Lincoln Constance 2012, Hydrocotyle verticillata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 02, 2023.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2023, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 02, 2023.

Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2018 Neal Kramer
Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Hydrocotyle verticillata
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© 2015 Steve Matson

More photos of Hydrocotyle verticillata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Hydrocotyle verticillata:
s NCoRO, n&c SN, s SNF, GV, CW (exc SCoRI), SW (exc ChI, SnJt), W&I, D
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).