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Vascular Plants of California
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Dissanthelium californicum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: DissantheliumView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, cespitose, sometimes from rhizomes. Stem: erect to decumbent. Leaf: blade folded, inrolled, or flat. Inflorescence: panicle-like, +- narrow; branches +- clustered, ascending to erect, +- dense. Spikelet: laterally compressed; glumes +- equal, generally > lower floret, +- membranous, subacuminate, awn 0, lower glume +- 1-veined, upper 3-veined; axis breaking apart above glumes and between florets; florets 2(3), lower generally bisexual, upper pistillate, sometimes both bisexual; lemma membranous, keeled, 3-veined; palea < and enclosed by lemma.
Etymology: (Greek: double small flower, from 2 small florets) Note: Phylogenetically nested in, best treated in, Poa (Refulio-Rodriguez 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation Claremont Graduate Univ).
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy F. Refulio-Rodriguez & James P. Smith, Jr.
Unabridged Reference: Refugio 2007 FNANM 24:700; Swallen & Tovar 1965 Phytologia 11:361--376
Dissanthelium californicum (Nutt.) Benth.
Habit: Annual. Stem: < +- 3 dm. Leaf: blade 1--1.5 dm, 2--4 mm wide. Inflorescence: < 1.5 dm; branches ascending or curving. Spikelet: 3--4 mm, equal; glumes > florets; lemma +- 1.5--2 mm, hairy, obtuse to acute.
Ecology: Coastal-sage scrub; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: s ChI (Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands); Distribution Outside California: Baja California (Guadalupe Island). Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Presumed extinct in TJM (1993); rediscovered on Santa Catalina Island in 2005, on San Clemente Island in 2010.
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy F. Refulio-Rodriguez & James P. Smith, Jr.
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Dissanthelium californicumbotanical illustration including Dissanthelium californicum

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Citation for this treatment: Nancy F. Refulio-Rodriguez & James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Dissanthelium californicum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

No expert verified images found for Dissanthelium californicum.

Geographic subdivisions for Dissanthelium californicum:
s ChI (Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands)
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).