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Vascular Plants of California
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Cochlearia groenlandica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CochleariaView Description 

Habit: Annual to perennial herb, low, +- fleshy, glabrous. Leaf: basal simple, thick, petioled; cauline petioled or sessile, basally lobed, entire or dentate. Inflorescence: elongate. Flower: sepals ascending to spreading, base not sac-like; petals oblanceolate to oblong or elliptic, white. Fruit: silicle, round to oblong, +- inflated or flat perpendicular to septum, sessile, dehiscent, unsegmented; stigma entire. Seed: 5--32, 2 rows per chamber.
Species In Genus: 16 species: North America, Europe, Asia, northwestern Africa. Etymology: (Latin: spoon, from basal leaves of some species)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Cochlearia groenlandica L.
Habit: Biennial, perennial herb. Stem: spreading to erect, (0.1)0.5--3(4) dm. Leaf: petiole 1--7(10) cm; basal blades 0.7--2(2.5) cm, ovate to deltoid, margin entire to wavy or obscurely dentate, base truncate to tapered; upper cauline sessile, entire to obscurely dentate, not basally lobed. Flower: sepals 1--2(3) mm; petals 2--4(5) mm, oblanceolate to spoon-shaped. Fruit: 3--5.5(7) mm, ovoid to obovoid; style 0.1--0.4 mm; pedicel ascending, (2)5--15(20) mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Seabird nesting areas on offshore rocks, islands; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: n NCo (Del Norte Co.); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern Canada. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Generally treated as variety of Cochlearia officinalis, but latter is a Europe tetraploid (2n=24), of a different lineage.
Synonyms: Cochlearia officinalis L. var. arctica (Schltdl. ex DC.) Gelert
Unabridged Synonyms: Cochlearia officinalis L. subsp. arctica (Schltdl. ex DC.) Hultén
Jepson eFlora Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Cochlearia groenlandica

botanical illustration including Cochlearia groenlandica


Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2012, Cochlearia groenlandica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2022.

No expert verified images found for Cochlearia groenlandica.

Geographic subdivisions for Cochlearia groenlandica:
n NCo (Del Norte Co.)
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).