Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Cicendia quadrangularis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: GentianaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal +- petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, +- persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1--2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). Note: Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin.
eFlora Treatment Author: James S. Pringle, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CicendiaView Description 

Habit: Annual, glabrous. Stem: erect, 1. Leaf: basal, cauline, opposite. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1. Flower: parts in 4s; calyx not appressed to, much wider than corolla tube, sepal midveins narrow-keeled; corolla salverform, yellow, lobes < tube, nectary pits 0 (nectaries elsewhere 0); ovary sessile, style thread-like, cleft +- 0.1 mm, deciduous, stigmas 2.
Etymology: (According to Michael Charters and David Hollombe,, from Kikenda, an old Toscanan (Italian) name for a gentianaceous pl)
Cicendia quadrangularis (Lam.) Griseb.
Habit: Plant < 9 cm. Stem: simple or branched from near base. Leaf: 4--9 mm, ovate, lanceolate, elliptic, or oblanceolate; cauline < internodes. Inflorescence: pedicels < 5.5 cm. Flower: calyx < 7 mm, tube hemispheric, lobes << tube, minutely triangular, acute, sinus between lobes wide, truncate; corolla < 10 mm, lobes < 4 mm, ovate-elliptic, tip rounded. Chromosomes: 2n=26.
Ecology: Open places; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, CaRF, n&c SNF, GV, CCo; Distribution Outside California: to Oregon; South America. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Microcala quadrangularis (Lam.) Griseb.
Jepson eFlora Author: James S. Pringle
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Cicendia
Next taxon: Comastoma

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Botanical illustration including Cicendia quadrangularis

botanical illustration including Cicendia quadrangularis

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Citation for this treatment: James S. Pringle 2012, Cicendia quadrangularis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 03, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 03, 2024.

Cicendia quadrangularis
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©2004 Carol W. Witham
Cicendia quadrangularis
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©2019 Neal Kramer
Cicendia quadrangularis
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©2011 Barry Breckling
Cicendia quadrangularis
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©2004 Aaron Schusteff
Cicendia quadrangularis
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©2023 Dylan Neubauer

More photos of Cicendia quadrangularis
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Cicendia quadrangularis:
NCo, NCoRO, CaRF, n&c SNF, GV, CCo
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).