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Vascular Plants of California
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Blepharizonia plumosa

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Viguiera in Aldama and Bahiopsis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: BlepharizoniaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BIG TARWEED
Habit: Annual 1--18+ dm, strongly aromatic. Stem: erect, branches arched-ascending or +- wand-like, long- and short-bristly, +- glandular, at least distally. Leaf: basal and cauline, proximal opposite, often withered before flower, 4--15+ cm, most alternate, +- sessile, narrowly spatula-shaped to linear or distal lanceolate, entire or serrate, soft-hairy to bristly, distal glandular-hairy and/or with marginal tack-shaped glands. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1 or in +- raceme- to panicle- or spike-like clusters; peduncle bracts with 1+ tack-shaped glands on tip or margins; involucre bell-shaped or obconic to spheric, 3--9+ mm diam; phyllaries 5--13, elliptic to lanceolate or oblanceolate, each +- half enclosing a ray ovary, falling with fruit, 4.5--7.5 mm, hairy or +- glabrous, generally with tack-shaped glands; receptacle flat, minutely bristly; paleae in 1 series between ray and disk flowers, free, deciduous. Ray Flower: 5--13; corolla +- white, ray 5--10+ mm, generally red- or purple-veined abaxially, lobes +- parallel, 1/4--1/2 length of ray. Disk Flower: 5--35(60+); corolla 4--5.5 mm, +- white to +- purple, tube < throat, lobes lanceolate; anthers +- dark purple, tips ovate to ovate-deltate; style glabrous proximal to branches, style tips awl-shaped, densely short-bristly.; anther bases sagittate. Fruit: 3.5--4 mm, club-shaped, +- round in ×-section or compressed front-to-back, 10-ribbed, densely ascending-hairy, ray pappus 0 or crown-like; disk pappus similar or of 12--20+, awl-shaped, +- red-brown, ciliate to plumose scales.
Etymology: (For resemblance to Blepharipappus and position in Hemizonia, where originally named as a subgenus) Note: Self-sterile.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:289--291
Unabridged Reference: Baldwin et al. 2001 Syst Bot 26:184--194; Gregory et al. 2001 Madroño 48:271--285
Blepharizonia plumosa (Kellogg) Greene
Inflorescence: involucre generally +- canescent, generally also with scattered tack-shaped glands. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Dry slopes in grassland; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: nw SnJV, e SnFrB. Flowering Time: Jul--Nov
Synonyms: Blepharizonia plumosa subsp. plumosa
Jepson eFlora Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:289--291
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Blepharizonia plumosa

botanical illustration including Blepharizonia plumosa

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Citation for this treatment: Bruce G. Baldwin 2012, Blepharizonia plumosa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 23, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 23, 2024.

Blepharizonia plumosa
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©2016 Neal Kramer
Blepharizonia plumosa
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©2016 Neal Kramer
Blepharizonia plumosa
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©2016 Neal Kramer
Blepharizonia plumosa
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©2013 Neal Kramer
Blepharizonia plumosa
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©2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Blepharizonia plumosa
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Geographic subdivisions for Blepharizonia plumosa:
nw SnJV, e SnFrB.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).