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Vascular Plants of California
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Borago officinalis


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: BoragoView Description 


Common Name: BORAGE
Habit: Annual [perennial herb], bristly to rough-hairy. Stem: ascending to erect. Leaf: cauline, +- petioled, ovate to oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: cymes, terminal, 2--3-flowered; pedicels +- spreading to pendent in fruit. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate to bell-shaped, lobes spreading, throat appendages erect, glabrous; stamens exserted, filament base dilated, anthers adherent around style, separating in age. Fruit: nutlets +- erect, 4, stout, obovoid, irregularly tubercled, exposed stipe-like basal attachment scar, rim of attachment scar thickened.
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Borago officinalis L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Generally branching above; taprooted. Stem: 2--7 dm. Leaf: lower blades 8--20 cm, 3--8 cm wide. Flower: calyx lobes 8--10 mm, 10--15 mm in fruit, linear; corolla rotate, bright blue, limb 18--20 mm diam; anthers 5--8 mm, dark brown. Fruit: nutlets 5--7 mm, +- oblong. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Open, disturbed sites; Elevation: < 550 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo, SnFrB, SCo; Distribution Outside California: widespread United States; native to southern Europe. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Ornamental, cultivated for bees (nectar source), potherb.
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Borago officinalis

botanical illustration including Borago officinalis

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Borago officinalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=15875, accessed on September 26, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 26, 2022.

Borago officinalis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Borago officinalis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Borago officinalis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Borago officinalis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Borago officinalis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Borago officinalis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Borago officinalis:
CCo, SnFrB, SCo
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).