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Vascular Plants of California
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Bernardia incana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EuphorbiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, +- radial; sepals 0 or 2--6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1--many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
Genera In Family: 217 genera, 6000+ species: +- worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Toxicity: Many species +- highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. Note: Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti).
eFlora Treatment Author: Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: BernardiaView Description 

Habit: Shrub; sap clear; [monoecious] dioecious. Stem: erect, generally much-branched. Leaf: cauline, alternate; hairs simple or stellate. Staminate Inflorescence: spike or raceme, axillary. Pistillate Inflorescence: terminal; flower occasionally 1. Staminate Flower: sessile or short-pedicelled; calyx splitting into 3--4 parts; stamens 3--25, filaments free; nectar disk minute or 0. Pistillate Flower: sessile; sepals 4--6; nectar disk 0; ovary 3-chambered, styles 3, free, 2-lobed or -toothed. Fruit: 3-lobed. Seed: scar appendaged.
Etymology: (Bernard de Jussieu, French taxonomist, 1699--1776) Note: Bernardia myricifolia (Scheele) S. Watson not in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster
Bernardia incana C.V. Morton
Habit: Plant < 2.5 m, hairy. Leaf: stipules +- 1 mm, deciduous; petiole 1--5 mm; blade 0.5--3 cm, elliptic, tip obtuse or rounded, margin crenate. Staminate Inflorescence: raceme; pedicel 3--4 mm. Pistillate Inflorescence: flower 1, sessile. Staminate Flower: stamens 12--15; nectar disk of small glands. Pistillate Flower: sepals 5, +- 2 mm, unequal; ovary tomentose, styles jagged. Fruit: 8--10 mm diam, tomentose. Seed: 5 mm, smooth; back ribbed.
Ecology: Washes, rocky canyons; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s DMoj, DSon; Distribution Outside California: to Texas, Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--May, Oct--Nov
Jepson eFlora Author: Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Bernardia incana

botanical illustration including Bernardia incana

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Citation for this treatment: Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster 2012, Bernardia incana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 25, 2024.

Bernardia incana
click for enlargement
©2014 Keir Morse
Bernardia incana
click for enlargement
©2014 Keir Morse
Bernardia incana
click for enlargement
©2014 Keir Morse
Bernardia incana
click for enlargement
©2014 Keir Morse
Bernardia incana
click for enlargement
©2014 Keir Morse

More photos of Bernardia incana
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Bernardia incana:
s DMoj, DSon
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).