Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon


Anchusa officinalis
COMMON ALKANET


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: AnchusaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: ALKANET
Habit: [Annual] perennial herb (may flower 1st year); hairs bristly, bases bulbous or not. Stem: +- erect. Leaf: basal and cauline, petioled to sessile, clasping, lance-linear [oblong to oblanceolate], +- entire. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, generally spike-like cymes; tip coiled. Flower: corolla funnel-shaped to salverform, pale blue to violet, appendages 5, ovate to oblong, +- puberulent; stamens included to exserted. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, erect, +- ovoid, irregularly angled or wrinkled, exposed attachment scar basal or oblique, scar surrounded by thick rim.
Species In Genus: +- 35 species: Eurasia, Africa. Ornamental, cultivated for drugs, dyes. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for alkanet) Note: Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. occasionally in orchards.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Greuter 1965 Candollea 20:192--210
Anchusa officinalis L.
NATURALIZED
Stem: 4--7 dm. Leaf: upper 5--10 mm wide. Flower: calyx 5--7 mm, 8--12 mm in fruit, lobes lanceolate; corolla radial, salverform, tube 5--10 mm, straight, limb 6--12 mm diam, violet to blue-violet, (dark blue), appendages +- white; stamens on upper tube, +- exserted. Fruit: nutlet base 2--3.5 mm wide, tip incurved, scar basal. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Roadsides; Elevation: 70--150 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRF, ScV; Distribution Outside California: widespread United States; native to Europe. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Anchusa procera Link
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Anchusa azurea
Next taxon: Andersonglossum

Name Search

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley 2012, Anchusa officinalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=13222, accessed on June 24, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 24, 2022.

No expert verified images found for Anchusa officinalis.



Geographic subdivisions for Anchusa officinalis:
CaRF, ScV
MAP CONTROLS
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
MAP LEGEND
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).