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Aegilops triuncialis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: AegilopsView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GOAT GRASS
Habit: Annual. Stem: generally erect to abruptly bent at base, generally glabrous. Leaf: sheath margins translucent, auricles ciliate; ligule membranous or 0; blade 1.5--15 cm, 1.5--5 mm wide, flat, spreading. Inflorescence: 1.5--11(15) cm, spike-like, cylindric or wider at base, +- open to dense; spikelets 2-ranked, 1 per node, basal generally vestigial, distal spikelets also generally reduced; breaking away as a single unit or in sections with axis segments attached. Fertile Spikelet: generally not compressed, 5--15 mm; glumes thick, hard, 3 +- veined, tips generally toothed or 1--5-awned; florets 2--5[8]; lemma similar to glumes or firmer, toothed or 1--3-awned at tip; palea papery, 2-keeled. Distal Spikelet: 2--5 mm, similar or not to fertile spikelet, generally sterile.
Etymology: (Greek, preferred by goats, or Latin, a sweet-fruited oak) Note: Interfertile with Triticum and perhaps not distinct from it. Aegilops tauschii Coss. is reported from a single occurrence in Riverside Co., doubtfully naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Saufferer 2007 FNANM 24:261--267
Unabridged Reference: Kimber & Feldman 1987 Spec Rep 353 Coll Agric Univ Missouri-Columbia; van Slageren 1994 Wageningen Agric Univ Pap 94(7):513 pp.
Aegilops triuncialis L.
Stem: 17--45 cm. Leaf: blade 1.5--7 cm, 2--3 mm wide. Inflorescence: 2--5.5 cm; vestigial basal spikelets 2--3; +- cylindrical distally; axis breaking at base of spikelets at maturity; spikelets generally not sunken in axis. Fertile Spikelet: 7--13 mm, lance-ovate, glumes 2--3 awned; florets generally 3--5, lower 2 generally fertile; lemma 2--3-toothed, central tooth occasionally extended as an awn to 10 mm. Distal Spikelet: 7--9 mm, glumes 3-awned or 1-awned with 2 lateral teeth, awns generally 4--8 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Disturbed sites, cultivated fields, roadsides; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoR, CaRF, n&c SNF, ScV, n CW; Distribution Outside California: native to Mediterranean Europe, western Asia. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Many collections of Aegilops neglecta are misidentified as this.
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Saufferer 2007 FNANM 24:261--267
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Noxious Weed listed on the CDFA Weed Pest Ratings table
View the CDFA Pest Rating page for Aegilops triuncialis
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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botanical illustration including Aegilops triuncialis

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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Aegilops triuncialis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 21, 2024.

Aegilops triuncialis
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©2004 Carol W. Witham
Aegilops triuncialis
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©2007 Neal Kramer
Aegilops triuncialis
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©2009 Barry Rice
Aegilops triuncialis
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©2005 Steve Matson
Aegilops triuncialis
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©2005 Steve Matson

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Geographic subdivisions for Aegilops triuncialis:
s NCoR, CaRF, n&c SNF, ScV, n CW
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).