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Vascular Plants of California
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Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Habit: Shrub, tree. Stem: erect, branched, densely glandular-hairy. Leaf: cauline, alternate, net-veined. Inflorescence: panicle-like, generally open, terminal. Flower: sepals 5, fused at base, equal, alike, enlarging in fruit; corolla rotate to widely bell-shaped, gen puberulent inside, appendages at tube top 0; stamens attached at same level, equal, exserted, hairy, bases gen wider, with 0 wings, pollen tan; ovary half-inferior, entire, chambers 2, unequal, appearing as 4 by intrusion of the 2 placentas in fruit, styles 2, >= corolla throat, enlarging, persisting in fruit, hairy, stigmas green, disk subtending ovary, gen conspicuous. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, valves 2 or 4, dehiscent on wetting. Seed: many, oblong, angled or compressed, winged due to scarious margins, wind-dispersed.
Species In Genus: +- 7 species: (sub)tropical America, Caribbean. Etymology: (Bishop J. Wigand of Pomerania, 1523--1587) Toxicity: Dermatitis caused by contact with hairs (Reynolds et al. 1989 Contact dermatitis 21(2):65--68). Note: Presence, density of stinging and glandular hairs influenced by environmental conditions and age of plants; recognition of taxa has been based on characters such as hairs, accrescent styles (Leticia et al. 2000) that may not be genetically based. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
Jepson eFlora Author: Genevieve K. Walden
Reference: Leticia et al. 2000 Tree Physiology 20(9):629--632
Unabridged Reference: Hilger 1987 Amer J Bot 74(2):250--259
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Genevieve K. Walden 2014, Wigandia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 2, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=10340, accessed on April 02, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 02, 2020.