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Vascular Plants of California
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Andersonglossum occidentale


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: AndersonglossumView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb, biennial, +- hairy, taprooted. Stem: erect. Leaf: entire, basal petioled, cauline petioled or not. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, +- terminal, bracted or not. Flower: calyx +- deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, blue to red-purple, appendages large; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, spreading, 5--8 mm diam, +- spheric or disk-shaped, short-barbed-prickly, adaxial attachment scar at tip.
Etymology: For William R. Anderson, American botanist, 1942--2013 + Cynoglossum, where previously included Note: More closely related to members of subtribe Amsinckiinae than to Cynoglossum (where previously included) based on molecular phylogenetic analyses (Cohen 2015; Simpson et al. 2017).
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Michael G. Simpson
Reference: Cohen 2015 Syst Bot 40:611--619; Simpson et al. 2017 Taxon 66:1406--1420
Andersonglossum occidentale (A. Gray) J.I. Cohen
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 1--several, clustered, 1.5--5 dm, spreading-hairy, not glaucous. Leaf: rough-hairy; basal blade 5--15 cm, 1--4 cm wide, +- oblanceolate, base tapered, petiole 4--10 cm, winged; cauline +- many, sessile. Inflorescence: above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 4--8 mm. Flower: corolla 6--9 mm, bell-shaped, limb 4--9 mm diam, tube, lobes +- blue, generally tinged rose to brown, appendages white. Fruit: nutlets +- spheric, ascending-spreading, abaxially rounded, margin not raised.
Ecology: Open, dry, conifer forest; Elevation: 900--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, NCoRI, CaRH, SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to central Oregon. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Synonyms: Cynoglossum occidentale A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Michael G. Simpson
Reference: Cohen 2015 Syst Bot 40:611--619; Simpson et al. 2017 Taxon 66:1406--1420
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Andersonglossum occidentalebotanical illustration including Andersonglossum occidentale

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Michael G. Simpson 2021, Andersonglossum occidentale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

No expert verified images found for Andersonglossum occidentale.

Geographic subdivisions for Andersonglossum occidentale:
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).