University Herbarium, UC Berkeley: Indian Ocean Catalogue

IOC entry for Galaxaura rugosa

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Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux

Corallina rugosa Ellis & Solander, 1786: 115, pl. 22: fig. 3 (type locality: Jamaica).

Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, 1816: 263.—Montagne & Millardet, 1862: 10.— G. Martens, 1868: 86–87.— Dickie, 1874b: 195.— J. Agardh, 1876: 528–529.— Hauck, 1886 [1886–1889]: 220.— G. Murray, 1887: 28.— Askenasy, 1888: 33, pl. VII: figs. 8–14.— Bornet, 1888: 20.— Schmitz, 1895a: 139.— Schmitz, 1895b: 26.— De Wildeman, 1897a: 168.— Barton, 1903a: 481.— Barton, 1903b: 164.— Schröder, 1912: 299.— De Toni, 1920: 134.— Jadin, 1935: 163 (in part).— Børgesen, 1942b: 48–49.— Børgesen, 1949a: 40–41, pl. II: fig. 2.— Durairatnam, 1961a: 49.— K. Srinivasan, 1961a: 229.— Sacco, 1965: 551.— S. Dixit, 1970: 117.— V. Krishnamurthy & H. Joshi, 1970: 17.— Lawson, 1980: 44.— Solimabi et al., 1981: table 1.— Papenfuss, Mshigeni, & Chiang, 1982: 421–424, figs. 17–19, 29, 40, 41, 45.— Untawale, Dhargalkar, & Agadi, 1983: [27].— Untawale & Jagtap, 1984: 101 (table 1).— Jagtap, 1985a: 46.— Kalugina-Gutnik, 1985: 96.— Payri, 1985: 640.— Desikachary, V. Krishnamurthy, & M. Balakrishnan, 1990: 183–184, fig. 37J.— Huisman & Borowitzka, 1990: 153–157, figs. 1–13.— Huisman et al., 1990: 93.— Huisman & Walker, 1990: 397.— Kendrick, Huisman, & Walker, 1990: 48, 50, 53.— Ambiye & Untawale, 1991b: 97–99, figs. 1–5.— Kamat et al., 1991: 55.— Kalugina-Gutnik, Perestenko, & Titlyanova, 1992: 17 (table 1).— Kamat et al., 1992: table I.— Jagtap, 1993: table I.— Wynne, 1995: 264.

Taxonomic synonyms:

Corallina lapidescens Ellis & Solander, 1786: 112–113, pl. 21: fig. g; pl. 22: fig. 9 (type locality: not specified).

Galaxaura lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, 1816: 264 (including Indian Ocean record).—Decaisne, 1842b: 116.— Kützing, 1849: 530.— Harvey, 1863: xxxviii.— G. Martens, 1868: 86–87.— Dickie, 1874b: 195.— J. Agardh, 1876: 530.— Sonder, 1879: 83.— G. Murray, 1887: 28.— Schmitz, 1895a: 139.— Schmitz, 1895b: 26.— De Toni, 1897: 114–115.— Lucas, 1909: 22.— Jadin, 1935: 163.— Børgesen, 1942b: 46–48, fig. 22.— V. May, 1965: 359.— S. Dixit, 1970: 117.— Lawson, 1980: 44.— Papenfuss, Mshigeni, & Chiang, 1982: 407–410, figs. 4, 5, 22, 23, 34, 44.— V. Krishnamurthy & Sundararajan, 1986: 35, 37, figs. 10–16, 44.— Untawale, Reddy, & Ambiye, 1989: table 1.— Desikachary, V. Krishnamurthy, & M. Balakrishnan, 1990: 179–180, figs. 37F,G, pl. XIX.B.— Basson, 1992: 224.— Bakus et al., 1994: 127.— Kerkar, 1994: table 1.

Microthoe lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Harvey, 1855b: 553.

* Galaxaura annulata Lamouroux, 1816: 263 (type locality: "Indes Orientales'').—Decaisne, 1842b: 116.— Kützing, 1849: 530.— G. Martens, 1868: 25, 86–87.— J. Agardh, 1876: 528.— De Toni, 1897: 116.

Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux var. annulata (Lamouroux) Piccone, 1901: 123.—Lawson, 1980: 44.

Holonema liebmannii Areschoug, 1854b: 357 (type locality: near Veracruz, Mexico).

Galaxaura liebmannii (Areschoug) Kjellman, 1900: 46, pl. 1; pl. 20: fig. 41.—Weber-van Bosse, 1913b: 112–113.— Weber-van Bosse, 1914: 276–277.

Galaxaura tomentosa Kützing, 1858: 18, pl. 38: fig. II (type locality: eastern Mexico).—G. Martens, 1868: 86–87.— G. Martens, 1871b: 467.— Theobald, 1883: 26.— K. Srinivasan, 1961a: 229.— S. Dixit, 1970: 116.— V. Krishnamurthy & H. Joshi, 1970: 17.— Untawale, Dhargalkar, & Agadi, 1983: [27].

Microthoe tomentosa (Kützing) Montagne & Millardet, 1862: 11.

Galaxaura elongata J. Agardh, 1876: 529 (syntype localities: Tonga; northeastern Australia).—Svedelius, 1945: 12–18, figs. 8–10, pl. II.— V. May, 1965: 359.— Papenfuss & Chiang, 1969: 312–313.— Sartoni, 1975: 291, fig. 13.— Jaasund, 1976: 67, fig. 134, pl. 6.— Sartoni, 1976: 129, fig. 13.— Jaasund, 1977c: 416.— Farghaly, 1980: 155, pl. XVII: fig. 3.— Lawson, 1980: 43.— Solimabi et al., 1981: table 1.

* Galaxaura collabens J. Agardh, 1885: 74–75 (type locality: "ad Novam Hollandiam austro-occidentalem'' [Rottnest Island, Western Australia fide Huisman & Borowitzka, 1990: 153, fig. 10]).—De Toni, 1897: 114.— Kjellman, 1900: 46–47, pl. 2: figs. 19–24; pl. 3: fig. 1; pl. 20: fig. 15.— Lucas, 1909: 22.— De Toni, 1924: 112.— Huisman et al., 1990: 93.— Kendrick, Huisman, & Walker, 1990: 50.

Galaxaura cuculligera Kjellman, 1900: 58, pl. 6: figs. 22–30; pl. 20: fig. 30 (type locality: Goto-retto, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan).—Weber-van Bosse, 1921: 212.— De Toni, 1924: 120–121.

Galaxaura flagelliformis Kjellman, 1900: 47, pl. 3: figs. 2–11; pl. 20: fig. 16 (type locality: Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).—Børgesen, 1939b: 104–105.— S. Dixit, 1970: 117.

Galaxaura glabriuscula Kjellman, 1900: 56–57, pl. 7: figs. 1, 2; pl. 20: fig. 26 (type locality: Tahiti).—R. Chou, 1947: 11–13, pl. 4: figs. 14–20; pl. 10: fig. 1.

Galaxaura rudis Kjellman, 1900: 43–44, pl. 2: figs. 1–9; pl. 20: fig. 11 (type locality: Tonga).—Sigee, 1966: 73.— Tsuda & Newhouse, 1966: 99.— Hackett, 1977: 17.— Titlyanova, Perestenko, & Kalugina-Gutnik, 1992: 42.

Galaxaura squalida Kjellman, 1900: 55–56, pl. 6: figs. 1–12; pl. 20: fig. 9 (type locality: St. Croix, Virgin Islands).—Svedelius, 1945: 3–12, figs. 1–7, pl. I.— Isaac, 1967: 79.— W. Isaac & F. Isaac, 1968: 23, pl. 4: F.— Lawson, 1980: 44.

Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman, 1900: 48–49, pl. 3: figs. 12–14; pl. 20: fig. 17 (type locality: St. Croix, Virgin Islands).—P. Dangeard, 1941: 40–41, figs. 5M, 6.— Børgesen, 1942b: 48.— Isaac, 1967: 79.— W. Isaac & F. Isaac, 1968: 23.— Imbamba, 1972: 114.— Jaasund, 1976: 67, figs. 132A,B.— Jaasund, 1977c: 416.— Knutzen & Jaasund, 1979: 3.— Farghaly, 1980: 155.— Lawson, 1980: 44.— Papenfuss, Mshigeni, & Chiang, 1982: 424–425, figs. 20, 21, 29, 42, 46.— Untawale & Jagtap, 1984: 101 (table 1).— Jagtap, 1985a: 46.— Mshigeni, 1985: 18.— Payri, 1985: 640.— Jagtap, 1993: table I.

* Galaxaura mauritiana Børgesen, 1949a: 35–39, figs. 16, 17, pl. II: fig. 1 (type locality: Mauritius).—Børgesen, 1951: 35–36, fig. 17.— Payri, 1985: 640.

Misapplied name (fide Wynne in litt.):

Galaxaura obtusata.—Wynne, 1995: 299.

INDIAN OCEAN DISTRIBUTION: Aldabra Islands, Andaman Islands, Australia, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Laccadive Islands, Madagascar, Maldives (Addu Atoll), Mauritius, Mozambique, Nicobar Islands, Réunion, Seychelles (including Mahé Island), Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania (including Zanzibar).

Note: Galaxaura collabens, G. lapidescens, G. rudis, and G. subverticillata are included as synonyms on the authority of Huisman & Borowitzka (1990: 153–157). Galaxaura annulata, G. cuculligera, G. elongata, G. glabriuscula, and G. squalida are included as synonyms on the authority of Papenfuss, Mshigeni, & Chiang (1982: 421–422), who also included G. flagelliformis, G. liebmannii, G. mauritiana, and G. tomentosa as synonyms of G. lapidescens.

Addendum: This is some additional information about the taxonomy of Galaxaura rudis Kjellman and Microthoe lapidescens Harvey (Silva, Basson and Moe 1996, Indian Ocean Catalogue, pages 110-111). Currently, both taxa are considered taxonomic synonyms of Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux. I have recently examined the Type specimen on which Galaxaura rudis is based (Type locality Tonga, Harvey Nr 51, BM 000610865 and 610866, photo attached) and the internal anatomy agrees with the concept of Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman (1900, Floridé-slägtet: p. 48, pl. 3 figs 12-14, pl. 120 fig. 17, type locality Virgin Islands). The axes are compressed, and both short and long assimilatory filaments are present, which distinguishes it from Galaxaura fasciculata Kjellman. Galaxaura rugosa has far fewer assimilatory filaments, and the axes are terete (Abbott 1999, Marine Red Algae of the Hawaiian Islands, pp. 66-70). On the same BM sheet as the Type of G. rudis is a specimen of G. rugosa from Mangaia, Cook Islands (BM 000770096) and from the attached photo you can see the marked difference in morphology between the two entities, which I can confirm from field observations.

Galaxaura subverticillata is reported from the Indian Ocean as a synonym of Galaxaura rugosa, but in my opinion the Indian Ocean G. rugosa should be separated from the Pacific G. lapidescens / G. rudis plants, and G. subverticillata (sensu Abbott 1999: 69) should retain its specietal status pending future more definitive molecular proof to the contrary or in accord with that placement. [Antoine N'Yeurt]


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