The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Some or all hairs stellate; anthers tapered, opening only by terminal pores; plant often prickly
    2. Stellate hairs scale-like, rays fused at center
S. elaeagnifolium
    2' Stellate hairs not scale-like, rays free above stalk
      3. 1 anther > other 4; calyx tightly enclosing fruit
S. rostratum
      3' Anthers ± equal; calyx not tightly enclosing fruit
        4. Leaf densely white-tomentose or velvety below
          5. Calyx not prickly; inflorescence branches 2–4; fruits several–many, 7–15 mm wide
S. lanceolatum
          5' Calyx prickly; inflorescence branches 0; fruit 1, 35–50 mm wide
S. marginatum
        4' Leaf sparsely tomentose below, not clearly white or velvety
          6. Leaf deeply pinnately lobed, lobes wavy to again lobed; annual; fruit red
S. sisymbriifolium
          6' Leaf ± entire to wavy-lobed, teeth or lobes ± entire; perennial herb from rhizome; fruit yellow
            7. Corolla white or pale violet; stellate hairs fine, generally sessile; inflorescence generally raceme-like; fruit 8–20 mm
S. carolinense
            7' Corolla generally purple; stellate hairs coarse, some stalked; inflorescence generally branched; fruit > 20 mm diam
S. dimidiatum
  1' Hairs simple or branched, not stellate; anthers oblong, opening by terminal pores that become short slits; plant generally not prickly
    8. Leaf very deeply lobed
S. triflorum
    8' Leaf entire to shallowly lobed (or deeply 2-lobed below middle)
      9. Corolla weakly lobed, lobes < tube + throat, generally spreading
        10. Shrub 2–4 m; leaf ± entire to deeply lobed; fruit orange-red
S. aviculare
        10' Perennial or subshrub generally < 1 m; leaf ± entire to 1–2-lobed at base; fruit green to purplish
          11. Upper stem densely branched-hairy
S. umbelliferum
          11' Upper stem glabrous or mostly simple-hairy
            12. Stem ± glabrous, clearly ridged; leaf sessile or gradually tapered to base
S. parishii
            12' Stem generally soft- or glandular-hairy, smooth or weakly ridged; leaf base obtuse to subcordate
              13. Leaf generally 6–10 cm, oblong to ovate; fruit generally 15–25 mm; Channel Islands
S. wallacei
              13' Leaf 2–7 cm, lanceolate to ovate; fruit 10–15 mm; mainland
S. xanti
      9' Corolla lobes deep (= or > tube + throat), often reflexed
        14. Inflorescence axis generally forked, umbel-like clusters generally 2
          15. Corolla violet to purple, each lobe with 2 shiny green spots at base; plant ± woody, ± climbing
S. dulcamara
          15' Corolla white to pale violet, lobes not spotted; plant not woody, generally reclining
S. furcatum
        14' Inflorescence umbel- or raceme-like, axis not forked
          16. Calyx enlarged and enclosing fruit base; fruit yellowish or green
S. sarrachoides
          16' Calyx not enlarged, not enclosing fruit base; fruit black
            17. Anthers generally 2.5–4 mm
S. douglasii
            17' Anthers 1.4–2.2 mm
              18. Seeds 1–1.5 mm; hairs ± appressed or curved, glands 0
S. americanum
              18' Seeds 1.5–2.5 mm; hairs ± spreading or curved, some glandular
S. nigrum

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