The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Fruit strongly 5-ribbed, < 3 mm wide, generally with prominent warts or coarse wrinkles between ribs; involucre in fruit enlarged, brown, papery
    2. Leaf ± sessile, ± linear
      3. Perianth bright red, 3–4 × length of involucre in flower
M. coccinea
      3' Perianth pale pink to magenta, ± 2 × length of involucre in flower
M. linearis var. linearis
    2' Leaf obviously petioled, blade lanceolate or wider
      4. Involucre in flower short-hairy at base, glabrous on lobes, in fruit 10–15 mm
M. nyctaginea
      4' Involucre in flower hairy throughout on outside, in fruit generally < 8 mm
        5. Stem branched generally near top, ascending to erect, generally glabrous (or finely strigose) in lower half; leaf length > width, tip generally acute
M. oblongifolia
        5' Stem much-branched from near base, decumbent to ascending, hairy or glandular throughout; leaf length generally = width, tip obtuse to acute
M. pumila
  1' Fruit smooth to moderately 5- or 10-ribbed or -angled, often > 3 mm wide, sometimes with low wrinkles or warts; involucre in fruit little changed
    6. Flowers 3–16 per involucre, bracts either > 22 mm or free
      7. Perianth ± 15 mm; involucral bracts 15–30 mm, free to fused ± 1/2 length
M. alipes
      7' Perianth 40–60 mm; involucral bracts > 22 mm, fused > 1/2 length
        8. Fruit 5-angled
M. greenei
        8' Fruit not angled, often with 10 lines or low ribs
M. multiflora
          9. Involucral bracts obtuse; fruit warty, gelatinous when wet
var. glandulosa
          9' Involucral bracts acute; fruit smooth or lightly warty with 10 slender, tan ribs; not gelatinous when wet
var. pubescens
    6' Flower 1 per involucre; bracts < 15 mm, fused
      10. Perianth 30–50 mm; fruit bluntly 5-ribbed, cross-wrinkled
M. jalapa
      10' Perianth < 15 mm; fruit not 5-ribbed
        11. Involucre > 10 mm, lanceolate lobes > tube; perianth white; leaves ascending
M. tenuiloba
        11' Involucre < 10 mm, ± ovate lobes < tube; perianth white to magenta; leaves widely spreading
          12. Perianth pink to purple-red; leaf puberulent or glandular-hairy (youngest leaves with conic-based hairs); fruit generally very lightly dotted or wrinkled, sometimes smooth
M. californica
          12' Perianth white to pale pink; leaf finely glandular-hairy; fruit generally lightly dotted or wrinkled
M. bigelovii
            13. Fruit ovoid, lines 0 or inconspicuous; stems and leaves glandular-hairy
var. bigelovii
            13' Fruit ± spheric, generally with 10 pale lines; stems and leaves with short, reflexed hairs, generally also ± glandular
var. retrorsa

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