The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Stems hairy or stalked-glandular
    2. Involucre of pistillate heads < 6 mm; pistillate flowers < 18, corollas < 2.8 mm; fruit pappus < 6.5 mm; involucre of staminate heads < 5.2 mm; stems finely glandular-puberulent; leaves 0.7–3 mm wide, entire; Desert, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains
B. brachyphylla
    2' Involucre of pistillate heads > 6 mm; pistillate flowers > 20, corolla > 3.5 mm; fruit pappus > 7 mm; involucre of staminate heads > 5 mm; stems with fine curled hairs or stalked glands; leaves 1–12 mm wide, entire to toothed; Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, n Channel Islands
B. plummerae
      3. Stems with stalked glands; leaves 1–3 mm wide, ± linear, principal vein generally 1(3), entire to toothed
subsp. glabrata
      3' Stems with fine curled hairs; leaves 4–12 mm wide, oblanceolate, principal veins 3, margin toothed
subsp. plummerae
  1' Stems glabrous
    4. Perennial or subshrub; leaf entire or finely toothed; fruits ± glandular and hairy at tip; pistillate flowers 80–150 per head
B. douglasii
    4' Shrub (stems definitely woody); leaf entire or coarsely toothed; fruits generally glabrous; pistillate flowers generally < 50 per head
      5. Fruit ribs 5; pistillate flowers > 50 per head; leaves lanceolate, largest generally > 5 cm, persistent at flowering
B. salicifolia
      5' Fruit ribs 8–10; pistillate flowers < 43 per head; leaf shape various, < 5 cm or not lanceolate, persistent or deciduous at flowering
        6. Plants without many erect branches; bracts not << stem leaves; leaves coarsely toothed, generally persistent at flowering, principal veins 3
          7. Bracts generally linear, entire; leaves light green; involucre of pistillate heads 6–8 mm; fruit pappus 8–12 mm
B. emoryi
          7' Bracts obovate, sometimes toothed; leaves dark green; involucre of pistillate heads 3.5–5 mm; fruit pappus 5.5–9 mm
B. pilularis
        6' Plants with many erect branches; bracts generally << stem leaves; leaves generally entire, generally 0 at flowering, principal vein 1
          8. Larger leaves widely oblanceolate or wider; lateral heads sessile; receptacles conic to convex, generally with chaff; pistillate involucres < 4.5 mm; staminate involucres < 4 mm; staminate corollas < 3.3 mm, pappus < 3 mm; fruit < 1.5 mm, pappus generally < 3 mm
B. sergiloides
          8' Larger leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate; lateral heads generally pedicelled; receptacles concave to convex, chaff 0; pistillate involucres > 5.3 mm; staminate involucres > 4 mm; staminate corollas > 4 mm, pappus > 3 mm; fruit > 2 mm, pappus > 4 mm
            9. Pistillate involucres cylindric to bell-shaped, base glabrous; phyllaries lanceolate to ovate, tip acute to rounded, glabrous; widespread Peninsular Ranges, Desert
B. sarothroides
            9' Pistillate involucres funnel-shaped, base glandular-puberulent; phyllaries narrowly tapered, generally puberulent; s South Coast
B. vanessae

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