Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Annual (except 1 subsp. from c&s North Coast; if perennial herb, upper bracts long-silky); filament series unequal; generally flower in spring
    2. Upper stipules and bracts compounded into linear segments; bracts ± = calyx; leaf lobes not linear
S. diploscypha
    2' Upper stipules and bracts generally simple to 2-lobed; bracts generally << calyx; leaf lobes generally linear
      3. Segments of upper leaves tapered-ovate, 2–5-toothed at tip; stem bristly-hairy throughout; s Sierra Nevada Foothills (Tulare Co.)
S. keckii
      3' Segments of upper leaves ± linear, simple (rarely 2-toothed); stem generally ± glabrous below; widespread
        4. Outer filaments fused into small sets; back of fruit segment evenly net-veined and pitted, glabrous
S. hartwegii
        4' Outer filaments in a continuous, fused series; back of fruit segment longitudinally grooved or hairy
          5. Plant densely bristly-hairy above; back of fruit segment ± net-veined and pitted, minutely hairy; calyx stellate-canescent
S. hirsuta
          5' Plant glabrous or sparsely hairy; back of fruit segment longitudinally grooved, glabrous; calyx sparsely bristly
S. calycosa
            6. Annual (base of stem sometimes decumbent, rooting); bracts 2–5 mm, not silky-hairy, not obscuring calyx; petals 12–20 mm; widespread
subsp. calycosa
            6' Weak per from rhizomes; bracts 8–12 mm, silky-hairy, obscuring calyx; petals 20–25 mm; c&s North Coast
subsp. rhizomata
  1' Perennial from fleshy roots, woody caudex, or rhizomes; filament series ± equal; generally flower in late spring or summer
    7. Leaves generally evenly arrayed on stem, upper and lower generally similar and lobed < halfway to base; fruit segment beakless
      8. Petals white or purple-tinged; most leaves shallowly lobed (grapeleaf-like); bractlets 0(1–2)
S. malachroides
      8' Petals pink to rose-purple; leaves generally ± unlobed, often fan-shaped; bractlets 3
        9. Bracts subtending pedicels involucre-like; leaves ovate; inflorescence ± head-like; n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Nevada Co.)
S. stipularis
        9' Bracts subtending pedicels stipule-like; leaves fan-shaped, rarely lobed; inflorescence open, leafy; more widespread
S. hickmanii
          10. Bracts linear, linear-lanceolate, or oblong, << calyx; bractlets < calyx
            11. Plant generally 4–8 dm; calyx densely stellate-hairy, gray, marginal hairs much longer; Outer South Coast Ranges
subsp. hickmanii
            11' Plant generally < 3 dm; calyx stellate-hairy but not densely so, hairs uniform in length; San Francisco Bay Area
subsp. viridis
          10' Bracts generally lanceolate, ± = calyx; bractlets ± = calyx
            12. Upper leaves lobed ± to base, fan-shaped; Outer South Coast Ranges (c San Luis Obispo Co.)
subsp. anomala
            12' Upper leaves unlobed or very shallowly lobed; Outer South Coast Ranges, w Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Barbara Co.), San Bernardino Mountains
subsp. parishii
    7' Most leaves from near stem base, lower generally ± crenate, upper generally very deeply lobed (nearly compound); fruit segment generally with a short beak
      13. Inflorescence densely head- or spike-like, not 1-sided; calyces in flower generally overlapping; petals < 15 mm
        14. Fruit segments rough, at least on margins, generally net-veined and pitted; inflorescence sometimes interrupted in flower, generally interrupted (or not dense) in fruit; leaves often roughly bristly-hairy
          15. Inflorescence generally with evenly distributed flowers; margins and sides (not back) of fruit segment wrinkled and pitted; calyx hairs not obscuring surface; more widespread (subspp. key following
2 S. malviflora
          15' Inflorescence with exposed stem between clusters; back of fruit segment net-veined and pitted; calyx hairs generally obscuring surface; s Sierra Nevada
S. ranunculacea
        14' Fruit segments smooth, not net-veined or pitted; inflorescence continuous, generally ± dense in fruit; leaves generally sparsely soft-hairy
          16. Basal leaves deeply dissected (nearly compound); flower-stem with 1–2 small leaves, generally unbranched; inflorescence elongated in fruit — San Bernardino Mountains
S. pedata
          16' Basal leaves merely lobed; flower-stem more leafy, branched; inflorescence not much elongated in fruit
S. oregana
            17. Calyx (and generally inflorescence stalk) densely stellate-canescent with minute hairs; dense part of inflorescence generally ± 3 cm; 1° peduncles >> fruit cluster; North Coast Ranges
              18. Lower stem < 5 mm wide, generally not stellate, with bristly hairs ± 2 mm; inflorescence in flower generally 1.5–2.5 cm
subsp. hydrophila
              18' Lower stem generally > 5 mm wide, with both minute stellate hairs and 1–1.5 mm bristly hairs; inflorescence generally 2–5 cm in flower
subsp. valida
            17' Calyx (and generally inflorescence stalk) with some bristly hairs 0.5–1.5 mm; dense part of inflorescence generally > 3 cm;
            15 peduncles generally ± = fruit cluster; not Inner North Coast Ranges, s High North Coast Ranges
              19. Calyx enlarged in fruit to generally 8–13 mm; calyx with 1–2 mm bristly hairs; Northwestern California (Trinity, Humboldt cos.)
subsp. eximia
              19' Calyx little enlarged in fruit to generally 3.5–7 mm; calyx with small stellate hairs and sometimes bristly hairs as well; more widespread
subsp. spicata
      13' Inflorescence generally not densely head- or spike-like, sometimes 1-sided; calyces in flower generally not overlapping; if inflorescence ± congested, petals generally > 15 mm and fruit segments wrinkled
        20. Fruit segment narrowly wing-margined, glabrous; petals 15–35 mm; inflorescence generally > 30 cm; s Cascade Range Foothills & n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Butte Co.)
S. robusta
        20' Fruit segment rounded or angled, not winged, often hairy; petals and inflorescence generally shorter; more widespread
          21. Inflorescence 1-sided, loosely 3–15-flowered, axis delicate, curved between flowers; plant very glaucous, sparsely and minutely stellate (bristles 0); leaf 1° lobes generally 5, entire on upper leaves; stems many from woody taproot, ascending; rhizome 0; High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada
S. glaucescens
          21' Plant differing in 1 or more features from 21.; widespread
            22. Inflorescence generally < 2 cm wide (including petals), not 1-sided, flowers > 10; fruit segment glabrous or minutely glandular, back smooth, sides sometimes slightly wrinkled; petals 5–15(20) mm; rhizome 0; basal leaves not narrowly dissected
              23. Roots fibrous, branched, not fleshy; leaves not very fleshy; inflorescence generally ± dense; various habitats; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau
S. oregana subsp. oregana
              23' Roots fleshy, simple or clustered; leaves generally fleshy; inflorescence rather open; alkaline meadows, seeps; Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada
                24. Calyx minutely stellate; fruit segment back slightly net-veined; East of Sierra Nevada
S. covillei
                24' Calyx with minute stellate and longer bristly hairs; fruit segment back smooth; Southwestern California
S. neomexicana
            22' Inflorescence generally > 2 cm wide, sometimes 1-sided; fruit segment obviously wrinkled, net-veined, or pitted, sometimes hairy; petals generally > 15 mm; rhizome often present; basal leaves sometimes narrowly dissected
              25. Rhizome long, creeping; hairs of lower stem 2–3 mm, simple; lowest leaves generally unlobed, long-petioled; fruit segment back deeply pitted, stellate; Sierra Nevada, especially c High Sierra Nevada
S. reptans
              25' Plant differing in 1 or more features from 25. (if rhizome present, hairs shorter and fruit segment not stellate; leaves often lobed or short-petioled; widespread)
                26. Leaves (especially upper) deeply and narrowly ± 7-lobed, lobes again divided; inflorescence loosely 3–9-flowered; plant glaucous, minutely stellate only; c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
S. multifida
                26' Plant differing in 1 or more features from 26. (at least lowest leaves not so highly lobed; bristly hairs often present; widespread)
2 S. malviflora
                  27. Leaves generally crowded at stem base (plant ± scapose); inflorescence generally 30–45 cm in fruit; mid-stem leaves deeply lobed, unlike basal; rhizome generally 0; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Southwestern California
subsp. sparsifolia
                  27' Leaves ± evenly distributed on stem; inflorescence generally 4–15 cm in fruit; mid-stem leaves generally like basal; rhizome sometimes present; more widespread
                    28. Leaves (except lowest) nearly compound, lobes ternately divided into linear segments; stem base decumbent, rooting — s North Coast Ranges, Central Western California
subsp. laciniata
                    28' Leaves (especially mid-stem leaves) unlobed or at least lobes not ternately divided into linear segments; stem base rooting or not
                      29. Calyx uniformly stellate with generally dense, minute hairs; rhizome 0 or weak; plant sometimes glaucous; lobe tips of upper leaves generally 3-toothed; inflorescence open, sometimes 1-sided; fruit segment sometimes stellate; inland; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
subsp. asprella
                      29' Calyx generally both stellate and bristly (if bristles 0, stellate hairs larger); rhizome generally obvious; plant not glaucous; leaf tips variable; inflorescence open or dense, not 1-sided; fruit segment generally glabrous, not stellate; generally more coastal; North Coast, Central Western California, Southwestern California
                        30. Fruit segment lightly net-wrinkled; calyx sparsely fine-stellate and bristly; inflorescence generally open; stem base hairs simple, soft, generally ± 2 mm; San Bernardino Mountains
subsp. dolosa
                        30' Fruit segment obviously net-wrinkled; calyx hairs variable, generally denser; inflorescence open or dense; stem base hairs variable, generally more coarse; not San Bernardino Mountains
                          31. Basal leaf blade generally < 2 cm; calyx and stipules generally purple; pedicel hair-like — s North Coast
subsp. purpurea
                          31' Basal leaf blade often > 2 cm; calyx and stipules not purple; pedicel stouter
                            32. Plant stellate-canescent, hairs soft, felt-like, ± 1 mm; calyx densely stellate; petals generally 25–35 mm — Western Transverse Ranges, s Outer South Coast Ranges
subsp. californica
                            32' Plant not canescent, hairs generally few, generally coarse, spreading bristles; calyx generally sparsely hairy; petals often < 20 mm
                              33. Inflorescence not very dense, flowers spreading; plant generally 3–6 dm; rhizomes short; s North Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Central Coast, South Coast, n Channel Islands
subsp. malviflora
                              33' Inflorescence dense, flowers generally stiffly erect; plant often 5–9 dm; rhizomes long-trailing; n North Coast
subsp. patula

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