Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    
 

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to SALIX

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Plant vegetative (without reproductive structures)
Key 1
  1' Plant with reproductive structures
 
    2. Plant pistillate
Key 2
    2' Plant staminate
Key 3

Key to SALIX Key 1 (vegetative plants)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Dwarf alpine shrub, < 0.2 m, forming mats by layering or rhizomes
 
    2. Young leaves hairy; mature leaf blade 20–40 mm, not strongly net-like below, puberulent on both surfaces; plant forming colonies by adventitious rooting of stems
S. arctica
    2' Young leaves glabrous; mature leaf blade 6–22 mm, strongly net-like below, glabrous on both surfaces; plant forming rhizomatous mats
S. reticulata subsp. nivalis
  1' Low shrub to tree, not alpine, > 0.2 m, not mat-forming
 
    3. Tree; margins of bud scale free and overlapping
 
      4. Leaf blade not glaucous below; twigs yellowish or yellow-gray
S. gooddingii
      4' Leaf blade glaucous below; twigs yellow- or red-brown
S. laevigata
    3' Shrub or tree; margins of bud scale fused
 
      5. Petiole with glands at base of blade
 
        6. Tree, 7–25 m, alien; twigs pendent or erect, brittle at base; petioles tomentose or silky
 
          7. Stems generally erect (pendent); twigs yellow, gray-brown, or red-brown; twigs and young leaves densely silky; petioles silky; stipules acute at tip
S. alba
          7' Stems pendent ± to ground; twigs yellow- to gray-brown; twigs and young leaf blade sparsely long-soft-wavy-hairy, becoming glabrous; petioles tomentose; stipules acuminate at tip
2 S. babylonica
        6' Shrub or small tree, 0.6–10 m, native; twigs erect, flexible or brittle at base; petioles glabrous or long-soft-wavy-hairy
 
          8. Leaf blade tomentose or silky, tip acute; stipules not strongly glandular; twigs dull or shiny; shrub 0.4–6 m
2 S. eastwoodiae
          8' Leaf blade becoming glabrous, tip ± long-acuminate (rarely acute); stipules glandular; twigs highly glossy; tall shrub or small tree 1–10 m
S. lucida
      5' Petiole lacking glands at base of blade
 
        9. Leaf blade not glaucous below
 
          10. Leaf blade margins entire or sparsely fine-dentate with well separated teeth; plant clonal by root-sprouting; petiole glabrous or silky, 2–6 mm
 
            11. Leaf blade linear (length 10–23 × width); young leaves silky
2 S. exigua
            11' Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate (length 2.8–8.5 × width; young leaves long-soft-wavy-hairy, tomentose, or velvety
 
              12. Petiole glabrous; twigs gray-brown; leaf tip acute, both surfaces becoming glabrous to moderately tomentose or long-soft-wavy-hairy
S. melanopsis
              12' Petiole hairy; twigs red-brown; leaf tip acuminate, both surfaces densely silky or long-soft-wavy-hairy
S. sessilifolia
          10' Leaf blade margins entire to finely serrate; plant not clonal; petiole soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, or velvety, 3–17 mm
 
            13. Leaf blade margins strongly rolled under; young leaves woolly or silky
2 S. sitchensis
            13' Leaf blade margins flat or slightly rolled under; young leaves soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, woolly, or silky
 
              14. Young leaves shaggy-hairy; mature leaf blade glabrous or soft-shaggy-hairy below, shiny to highly glossy above
S. boothii
              14' Young leaves densely tomentose, silky, or woolly; mature leaf blade tomentose, long-soft-wavy-hairy, woolly-tomentose, silky, or becoming glabrous below and dull above
2 S. eastwoodiae
        9' Leaf blade glaucous below or surface obscured by hair
 
          15. Leaf blade linear (length 10–23 × width); young leaves silky; clonal by root-sprouting
2 S. exigua
          15' Leaf blade narrowly elliptic or wider; not clonal by root-sprouting
 
            16. Tree, 7–25 m, alien; twigs pendent ± to ground; stipule tip ± long-acuminate
2 S. babylonica
            16' Shrub or tree, 0.2–10 m, native; twigs decumbent or erect; stipule tip rounded to acute
 
              17. Leaf blade margins strongly rolled under
 
                18. Leaf blade densely woolly or silky below, surface obscured by white hair, dull above; margin of first leaves on shoot glandular-dotted to finely serrate
2 S. sitchensis
                18' Leaf blade silky, tomentose, or woolly below, often with mixture of white and rusty hairs, glaucous below, shiny above; margin of first leaves on shoot entire
S. scouleriana
              17' Leaf blade margins flat or slightly rolled under
 
                19. Leaf blade highly glossy above
 
                  20. Leaf blade moderately to densely shaggy, tomentose, or woolly below
 
                    21. Twigs generally glaucous; leaf blade generally woolly or shaggy-hairy below, 18–55 wide, length 1.6–4.2 × width
S. hookeriana
                    21' Twigs not glaucous; leaf blade generally tomentose below, 6–32 mm wide, length 3.2–9.6 × width
8 S. lasiolepis
                  20' Leaf blade glabrous (or soon becoming so) to sparsely silky below
 
                    22. Petiole tomentose or velvety; leaf blade 35–125 mm; twig hairs spreading; leaf blade glands slightly on upper surface of blade; generally 0–2500 m
8 S. lasiolepis
                    22' Petiole sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy; leaf blade 20–54 mm; twig hairs appressed or curved toward stem; leaf blade glands at margin of blade; 2500–4000 m
S. planifolia subsp. planifolia
                19' Leaf blade dull to shiny above
 
                  23. Leaf blade glabrous, downy, or soft-shaggy-hairy below
 
                    24. Leaf blade with white hairs, sometimes mixed with rusty hairs
 
                      25. Stipules generally leaf-like, sometimes vestigial; young leaves and leaf blade generally short-tomentose, sometimes densely silky; 0–2500 m
8 S. lasiolepis
                      25' Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves; young leaves and leaf blade generally densely silky; 1400–3600 m
 
                        26. Leaf blade 32–74 mm, persistently long-(often white)-hairy; petiole 3–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial
5 S. geyeriana
                        26' Leaf blade 44–102 mm, becoming ± glabrous or sparsely short-(generally rusty)-hairy; petioles 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later
3 S. lemmonii
                    24' Leaf blade with white hairs only
 
                      27. Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves
 
                        28. Young leaves and leaf blades generally densely silky; twigs generally glaucous; 1450–3600 m
5 S. geyeriana
                        28' Young leaves and leaf blades generally short-tomentose (sometimes densely silky); twigs not glaucous; 0–2500 m
8 S. lasiolepis
                      27' Stipules leaf-like
 
                        29. Leaf blade generally with ridge-like, netted veins below, blade length 2–3.8 × width, margin entire to shallowly crenate; twigs long-soft-wavy-hairy; young leaves densely silky — n Modoc Plateau
2 S. bebbiana
                        29' Leaf blade smooth below, blade length 2.2–9.6 × width, margin generally finely serrate (sometimes entire in S. lasiolepis); twigs tomentose or velvety, generally becoming glabrous; young leaves generally glabrous or very sparsely hairy (densely silky in S. lasiolepis)
 
                          30. Leaf base wedge-shaped to acute; blade shiny above; twigs tomentose, becoming glabrous
8 S. lasiolepis
                          30' Leaf base acute to rounded or ± cordate; blade dull above; twigs glabrous to sparsely long-soft-wavy-hairy
 
                            31. Twigs yellowish or grayish, smooth
S. lutea
                            31' Twigs generally red-brown, peeling
 
                              32. Leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic (length 2.9–6.4 × width), base acute to rounded (rarely cordate); stipule tip acute
S. ligulifolia
                              32' Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate (length 2.4–4.5 × width), base generally cordate; stipule tip rounded
S. prolixa
                  23' Leaf blade long-soft-wavy-hairy, tomentose, silky, or velvety below
 
                    33. Twigs glaucous
 
                      34. Leaf blade dull above
 
                        35. Leaf blade very densely white-silky below (some hairs sometimes rusty); young leaves short-silky; twigs brittle at base
2 S. drummondiana
                        35' Leaf blade sparsely to moderately densely white-silky below; young leaves long-silky; twigs flexible at base
3 S. orestera
                      34' Leaf blade shiny above
 
                        36. Leaf blade hairier below than above (but midrib glabrous below), generally densely white-silky to -tomentose; young leaves short-silky
2 S. drummondiana
                        36' Leaf blade equally hairy above and below or becoming glabrous (midrib below generally hairy like blade), hairs white, rusty, or mixed; young leaves silky
 
                          37. Leaf blade 32–74 mm, persistently long-(generally white)-hairy (sometimes mixed with rusty); petiole 3–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial
5 S. geyeriana
                          37' Leaf blade 44–102 mm, becoming glabrous or short-(generally rusty)-hairy; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves
3 S. lemmonii
                    33' Twigs not glaucous
 
                      38. Young leaves sparsely or moderately hairy; petiole puberulent; twigs long-soft-wavy-hairy — n Modoc Plateau
2 S. bebbiana
                      38' Young leaves very densely hairy; petiole tomentose, silky, or velvety; twigs soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, silky, velvety, or becoming glabrous
 
                        39. Leaf blade ± widely elliptic or widely obovate (length 1.3–2.8 × width); petiole velvety (or tomentose); young leaves velvety (or silky); leaf tip obtuse to rounded
S. delnortensis
                        39' Leaf blade ± narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate (length 2.8–7.3 × width); petiole tomentose (or silky or velvety in S. jepsonii); young leaves silky; leaf tip acute to acuminate (or obtuse in S. jepsonii)
 
                          40. Subalpine shrub < 1 m; leaf blade 10–95 mm; 2100–4000 m
 
                            41. Leaf blade 10–20 mm, shiny above; petiole silky; young leaves very densely hairy; rare, e slope c High Sierra Nevada (Mono Co.)
S. brachycarpa subsp. brachycarpa
                            41' Leaf blade 35–95 mm, dull above; petiole soft-shaggy-hairy; High Sierra Nevada
3 S. orestera
                          40' Shrub > 1 m; leaf blade 32–144 mm; 0–2800 m (± 3600 m in S. geyeriana, S. lemmonii, S. jepsonii)
 
                            42. Leaf blade with white and rusty hair
 
                              43. Stipules generally leaf-like (or vestigial); young leaves and leaf blade generally short-tomentose, sometimes densely silky; 0–1900 m
8 S. lasiolepis
                              43' Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, generally leaf-like on later leaves; young leaves and leaf blade generally densely silky; 1450–3600 m
 
                                44. Leaf blade 32–74 mm, persistently long-(often white)-hairy; petiole 3–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial
5 S. geyeriana
                                44' Leaf blade 44–110 mm, becoming glabrous or short-(generally rusty)-hairy; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves
3 S. lemmonii
                            42' Leaf blade with white hairs only
 
                              45. Petiole silky or velvety
 
                                46. Leaf blade 32–74 mm, generally densely silky on both surfaces; stipules generally 0; petiole velvety
5 S. geyeriana
                                46' Leaf blade 35–144 mm, generally becoming glabrous or hairier below; stipules generally leaf-like
 
                                  47. Leaf blade densely silky below, dark green above; margin of first leaves on shoot gland-dotted
S. jepsonii
                                  47' Leaf blade sparsely or moderately hairy below, not dark green above; margin of first leaves on shoot glandless
8 S. lasiolepis
                              45' Petiole tomentose or soft-shaggy-hairy
 
                                48. Leaf blade silky on both surfaces; stipule tip acute
3 S. orestera
                                48' Leaf blade tomentose below, long-soft-wavy-hairy or tomentose above; stipule tip rounded
 
                                  49. Leaf blade generally densely tomentose below; twigs generally velvety; on serpentine — hybridizes with S. lasiolepis
S. breweri
                                  49' Leaf blade generally sparsely or moderately tomentose; twigs generally sparsely tomentose; not always on serpentine
8 S. lasiolepis

Key to SALIX Key 2 (pistillate plants)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Ovary glabrous
 
    2. Flower bract deciduous after flower, tawny, sparsely hairy, tip often ragged
 
      3. Margins of bud scale free and overlapping; tree
 
        4. Leaf blade not glaucous below; beak of ovary abruptly tapered to style
2 S. gooddingii
        4' Leaf blade glaucous below; beak of ovary gradually tapered to style
S. laevigata
      3' Margins of bud scale fused; shrub or tree
 
        5. Petiole with glands near base of blade; plant not clonal; stigmas persistent after flower
 
          6. Tree 10–25 m; stipules not conspicuously glandular; fruit 3.5–5 mm; twigs golden-yellow, gray-, or red-brown; alien
S. alba
          6' Tree or shrub 1–10 m; stipules conspicuously glandular; fruit 6–11 mm; twigs yellow-brown; native
S. lucida
        5' Petiole glands 0; plant spreading clonally by root-sprouting; stigmas deciduous after flower
 
          7. Fruit hairy, at least when young; flower bract tip acute to obtuse; young leaves silky
2 S. exigua
          7' Fruit glabrous; flower bract tip rounded; young leaves soft-shaggy-hairy
S. melanopsis
    2' Flower bract persistent after flower, tawny to black, generally hairy, tip entire
 
      8. Tree, alien; twigs pendent ± to ground; nectary > stalk
S. babylonica
      8' Shrub or tree, native; twigs erect; nectary < stalk
 
        9. Flower bract dark brown, widest at round tip, hairs dense, short, generally wavy, ± equal; twigs tomentose, brittle at base; hairs of young leaves white and sometimes also rusty
2 S. lasiolepis
        9' Flower bract not as above in all ways; twigs variously hairy, flexible at base (except some S. hookeriana); hairs of young leaves white only
 
          10. Leaf blade not glaucous below
 
            11. Catkins generally appearing before the leaves, sessile; leaf blade glabrous, becoming so, or soft-shaggy-hairy and highly glossy above; ovary generally glabrous
S. boothii
            11' Catkins appearing with the leaves, on distinct leafy shoots; leaf blade tomentose or silky and dull to shiny above; ovary generally silky (sometimes glabrous)
3 S. eastwoodiae
          10' Leaf blade glaucous below
 
            12. Stipules 0 or vestigial on early leaves, 0 or prominent on later leaves; flower bract hairs straight or wavy
 
              13. Style 0.6–1.4 mm; fruit 6–7 mm; twigs thinly glaucous; leaf blade length 1.6–3.9 × width, soft-shaggy or woolly below; flower bract with long, straight hairs, tip sometimes pointed
3 S. hookeriana
              13' Style 0.1–0.6 mm; fruit 2.5–5.5 mm; twigs not glaucous; leaf blade length 2.2–9.6 × width, tomentose or silky below (but becoming glabrous); flower bract with short, wavy hairs, tip generally widest at round tip
2 S. lasiolepis
            12' Stipules prominent on all leaves; flower bract hairs generally curly (rarely straight)
 
              14. Twigs yellow or gray-yellow, smooth, not peeling; twigs glabrous or sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy
S. lutea
              14' Twigs red-brown, sometimes yellow-brown, generally peeling; twigs glabrous or long-soft-wavy-hairy
 
                15. Ovary on stalk 0.9–2.5 mm; leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic (length 2.9–6.4 × width), base acute to rounded (rarely cordate); stipule tip acute
S. ligulifolia
                15' Ovary on stalk 1.3–4.2 mm; leaf blade lanceolate to ovate (length 2.4–4.5 × width), base generally cordate; stipule tip rounded
S. prolixa
  1' Ovary hairy
 
    16. Dwarf alpine shrub, forming mats by adventitious rooting of stems or by rhizomes
 
      17. Catkins > 20-flowered; flower bract hairy; nectary 0.6–1.2 mm; style 0.4–1.6 mm; leaf veins not strongly net-like below
S. arctica
      17' Catkins < 20-flowered; flower bract glabrous; nectary ± 0.2 mm; style 0.1–0.4 mm; leaf veins strongly net-like below
S. reticulata subsp. nivalis
    16' Low to tall shrub or tree; not forming mats
 
      18. Flower bract deciduous, tawny, sparsely to moderately hairy
 
        19. Tree, not clonal by root-sprouting; margins of bud scale free and overlapping; leaf margins entire to finely serrate; petiole glands present; stigmas persistent
2 S. gooddingii
        19' Slender shrub, clonal by root-sprouting; margins of bud scale fused; leaf margins entire or finely dentate with well separated teeth; petiole glands 0; stigmas deciduous after flower
 
          20. Leaf blade linear (length 10–23 × width); ovary silky or soft-shaggy-hairy; style 0–0.2 mm; outer nectary present
2 S. exigua
          20' Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate or elliptic (length 3–8.5 × width); ovary densely long-soft-wavy-hairy; style 0.2–0.4 mm; outer nectary 0
S. sessilifolia
      18' Flower bract persistent, brown or tawny, generally moderately hairy
 
        21. Catkins appearing with the leaves, on distinct, leafy shoot
 
          22. Leaf blade not glaucous below or surface obscured by hair
 
            23. Leaf blade densely silky or silky-woolly below, dark green and sparsely silky (but becoming glabrous) above; twigs generally brittle at base
 
              24. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width, margins flat or slightly rolled under; nectary 0.3–0.6 mm; twigs highly brittle at base; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m
3 S. jepsonii
              24' Leaf blade 17–40 mm wide, length 2–4 × width, margins strongly rolled under; nectary 0.6–0.8 mm; twigs flexible or somewhat brittle at base; Northwestern California, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (except 1800–
 
              2500 m in n Northwestern California)
4 S. sitchensis
            23' Leaf blade sparsely to densely tomentose or silky and gray-green on both surfaces; twigs flexible at base
 
              25. Leaves on catkin shoots (and first leaves on vegetative twigs) distinctly finely serrate with long teeth
3 S. eastwoodiae
              25' Leaves on catkin shoots (and first leaves on vegetative twigs) entire or gland-dotted
 
                26. Leaf blade sparsely to moderately woolly-tomentose or silky, becoming glabrous below
 
                  27. Leaf blade shaggy-(sometimes appressed)-hairy below, base rounded or cordate (rarely acute); nectary 0.5–0.8 mm; High Sierra Nevada, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range
3 S. eastwoodiae
                  27' Leaf blade silky below, base acute; nectary 0.8–1 mm; High Sierra Nevada
2 S. orestera
                26' Leaf blade densely silky to woolly below
 
                  28. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width, margins flat or slightly rolled under; nectary 0.3–0.6 mm; twigs highly brittle at base; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m
3 S. jepsonii
                  28' Leaf blade 17–40 mm wide, length 2–4 × width, margins strongly rolled under; nectary 0.6– 0.8 mm; twigs flexible or somewhat brittle at base; Northwestern California, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (except 1800–2500 m in n Northwestern California)
4 S. sitchensis
          22' Leaf blade glaucous below
 
            29. Ovary on stalk 0–0.3 mm; subalpine shrub 0.2–0.5 m
S. brachycarpa subsp. brachycarpa
            29' Ovary on stalk 0.4–5 mm; alpine, subalpine, or montane shrub or tree > 0.5 m
 
              30. Young leaves with rusty or white and rusty hairs
 
                31. Catkin subspheric, 9–20 mm; style 0.1–0.4 mm; fruit 4–5.2 mm; flower bract pale; leaves generally persistently silky on both surfaces; petioles 3–9 mm; stipules 0 or vestigial
4 S. geyeriana
                31' Catkin cylindric, 14–50 mm; style 0.3–0.8 mm; fruit 5–6 mm; flower bract dark; leaves silky (but becoming glabrous) on both surfaces; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules leaf-like (except vestigial on early leaves)
2 S. lemmonii
              30' Young leaves with white hairs
 
                32. Style 0.1–0.4 mm; ovary on stalk 1–5 mm
 
                  33. Catkin 25–60 mm; twigs shaggy, not glaucous; petiole puberulent; leaf blade dull above; stipules leaf-like; ovary hairs gray, stalk 2–5 mm; 1000–1400 m
2 S. bebbiana
                  33' Catkin 9–15 mm; twigs tomentose or velvety, generally glaucous; petiole velvety; leaf blade shiny above; stipules vestigial; ovary hairs white or white and rusty, stalk 1–2.8 mm; 1500–3600 m
4 S. geyeriana
                32' Style 0.4–1 mm; ovary on stalk 0.4–2 mm
 
                  34. Style 0.4–0.6 mm; ovary short-silky; twigs highly brittle at base; leaf blade densely silky below; petiole silky or velvety
3 S. jepsonii
                  34' Style 0.6–1 mm; ovary long-silky; twigs flexible at base; leaf blade sparsely to moderately silky below; petiole tomentose
2 S. orestera
        21' Catkins appearing before (sometimes just before) the leaves, sessile or subtended by greenish bracts
 
          35. Flower bract tawny or light rose
 
            36. Flower bract sparsely hairy; ovary sparsely or moderately silky, long-beaked; style 0.1–0.4 mm
 
              37. Catkin 25–60 mm; twigs shaggy, not glaucous; petiole puberulent; leaf blade dull above; stipules leaf-like; ovary hairs gray, stalk 2–5 mm; 1000–1400 m
2 S. bebbiana
              37' Catkin 9–15 mm; twigs tomentose or velvety, generally glaucous; petiole velvety; leaf blade shiny above; stipules vestigial; ovary hairs white or white and rusty, stalk 1–2.8 mm; 1500–3600 m
4 S. geyeriana
            36' Flower bract moderately to densely hairy; ovary densely hairy, short-beaked; style 0.4–0.8 mm
 
              38. Ovary tomentose, stalk 0–0.4 mm; nectary generally thread-like; leaf margins slightly rolled under, blade sparsely or moderately tomentose below; stipule tip rounded; on serpentine
S. breweri
              38' Ovary silky, stalk 0.4–1.2 mm; nectary short, rod-like; leaf margins strongly rolled under, blade very densely woolly or silky below; stipule tip acute; not on serpentine
4 S. sitchensis
          35' Flower bract brown, black, or 2-colored
 
            39. Twigs strongly glaucous
S. drummondiana
            39' Twigs not glaucous or weakly so
 
              40. Young leaves with white hairs
 
                41. Catkin stout; ovary stalk 1–2 mm
3 S. hookeriana
                41' Catkin slender; ovary stalk 0–1.2 mm
 
                  42. Catkin 15–40 mm; ovary stalk 0–0.3 mm; leaf blade densely tomentose below; on serpentine, Klamath Ranges
S. delnortensis
                  42' Catkin 40–95 mm; ovary stalk 0.4–1.2 mm; leaf blade woolly or silky below; Northwestern California, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), w Western Transverse Ranges
S. sitchensis
              40' Young leaves with white or white and rusty hairs
 
                43. Stigma 0.2–0.4 mm; catkin < 45 mm
 
                  44. Catkin 9–15 mm; style 0.1–0.4 mm; fruit 4–5.2 mm
4 S. geyeriana
                  44' Catkin 13–50 mm; style 0.3–0.8 mm; fruit 5–6 mm
2 S. lemmonii
                43' Stigma 0.5–1.2 mm; catkin 30–140 mm in S. hookeriana, 10–45 mm in S. planifolia, 15–65 mm in S. scouleriana
 
                  45. Young leaves sparsely hairy; ovary stalk 0.3–0.8 mm; fruit < 6 mm
S. planifolia subsp. planifolia
                  45' Young leaves densely hairy; ovary stalk 0.8–2.3 mm; fruit > 6 mm
 
                    46. Style 0.6–1.4 mm; stigma 0.5–0.7 mm
3 S. hookeriana
                    46' Style 0.3–0.6 mm; stigma 0.7–1.2 mm, slender
S. scouleriana

Key to SALIX Key 3 (staminate plants)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Stamens > 2 per flower
 
    2. Margins of bud scale fused; anthers 0.7–1 mm
S. lucida
    2' Margins of bud scale free and overlapping; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm
 
      3. Leaf blade not glaucous below; twigs yellowish or yellow-gray; margins of leaves on catkin shoots finely serrate; young leaf hairs white
S. gooddingii
      3' Leaf blade glaucous below; twigs yellow- or red-brown; margins of leaves on catkin shoots entire; young leaf hairs white or white and rusty
S. laevigata
  1' Stamens 1 or 2 per flower
 
    4. Stamen 1 per flower
 
      5. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width; flower bract sparsely hairy; filaments hairy; twigs highly brittle at base; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m
2 S. jepsonii
      5' Leaf blade 17–40 mm wide, length 2–4 × width; flower bract moderately hairy; filaments glabrous; twigs flexible or somewhat brittle at base; Northwestern California, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (except 1800–2500 m in n Northwestern California)
S. sitchensis
    4' Stamens 2
 
      6. Dwarf alpine shrub, < 0.2 m, forming mats by rhizomes or adventitious rooting of stems
 
        7. Catkin on leafy shoot 9–18 mm; flower bract hairy; young leaves long-soft-wavy-hairy; only axillary nectary present
S. arctica
        7' Catkin on leafy shoot 2.1–4 mm; flower bract glabrous; young leaves glabrous; both axillary and outer nectary present
S. reticulata subsp. nivalis
      6' Low to tall shrub or tree, > 0.2 m, not mat-forming
 
        8. Both axillary and outer nectary present; catkins appearing with or after leaves, on leafy shoots; alien or native
 
          9. Tree; twigs brittle at base; alien
 
            10. Twigs erect or weakly pendent, generally yellow, sometimes gray- or red-brown; nectaries 2; twigs and young leaves densely silky
S. alba
            10' Twigs pendent ± to ground, gray- to yellow-brown; nectaries 1–several; twigs and young leaves glabrous or sparsely silky
S. babylonica
          9' Shrub; twigs flexible at base; native
 
            11. Low subalpine shrub, 0.2–0.5 m, not clonal by root-sprouting; catkin 4–5 mm on leafy shoot ± 1 mm; anthers 0.3–0.4 mm
S. brachycarpa subsp. brachycarpa
            11' Medium or tall riparian shrub, 0.8–7 m, clonal by root-sprouting; catkin 20–70 mm on leafy shoot 5–110 mm; anthers 0.5 to 1.2 mm
 
              12. Leaf blade linear; young leaves silky
S. exigua
              12' Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate; young leaves silky or long-soft-wavy-hairy
 
                13. Petiole tomentose or becoming glabrous; flower bract glabrous to sparsely hairy; leaf blade becoming glabrous or sparsely to moderately tomentose below, tip acute; twigs gray-brown
S. melanopsis
                13' Petiole silky; flower bract moderately hairy; leaf blade sparsely to very densely silky (or long-soft-wavy-hairy below), tip acuminate; twigs red-brown
S. sessilifolia
        8' Only axillary nectary present; catkins appearing before or with leaves, sessile or on leafy shoots; native
 
          14. Catkins appearing with leaves, on distinct, leafy shoots
 
            15. Hairs of young leaves rusty (or white and rusty)
 
              16. Catkin 6–12 mm; flower bract tawny to light brown; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm
4 S. geyeriana
              16' Catkin 13–35 mm; flower bract brown to 2-colored; anthers 0.5–0.9 mm
2 S. lemmonii
            15' Hairs of young leaves white only
 
              17. Filaments hairy
 
                18. Leaf blade not glaucous below; leaves on catkin shoots finely serrate with long teeth (rarely only gland-dotted)
2 S. eastwoodiae
                18' Leaf blade glaucous below or surface obscured by hair; leaves on catkin shoots entire or gland-dotted
 
                  19. Stipules 0 or vestigial
 
                    20. Catkin 9–15 mm; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm; leaf blade shiny above; petiole velvety
4 S. geyeriana
                    20' Catkin 12–25 mm; anthers 0.6–1 mm; leaf blade dull above; petiole tomentose
2 S. orestera
                  19' Stipules leaf-like
 
                    21. Leaf blade densely silky below; petiole silky or velvety; twigs very brittle at base
2 S. jepsonii
                    21' Leaf blade sparsely to moderately tomentose or silky below; petiole puberulent or tomentose; twigs flexible at base
 
                      22. Flower bract tawny; twigs moderately to densely long-soft-wavy-hairy; petiole puberulent; 1200–1400 m
2 S. bebbiana
                      22' Flower bract brown; twigs sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy or silky, becoming glabrous; petiole tomentose; 2100–4000 m
2 S. orestera
              17' Filaments glabrous
 
                23. Stipules 0 or vestigial, stipule scars 0 or minute
4 S. geyeriana
                23' Stipules leaf-like, stipule scars distinct
 
                  24. Leaf blade not glaucous below
2 S. eastwoodiae
                  24' Leaf blade glaucous below
 
                    25. Twigs yellowish to yellow-gray, not peeling; anthers 0.7–1.2 mm
S. lutea
                    25' Twigs generally red-brown sometimes yellow-brown, peeling; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm
 
                      26. Leaf blade margin entire to crenate; flower bract 1.2–3.2 mm, hairs wavy
2 S. bebbiana
                      26' Leaf blade generally serrate; flower bract 0.8–1.6 mm, hairs curly
 
                        27. Leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic, base acute to rounded; stipule tip acute
S. ligulifolia
                        27' Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate, base generally cordate; stipule tip rounded
S. prolixa
          14' Catkins appearing before leaves, sessile or subtended by greenish bracts
 
            28. Flower bracts generally tawny
 
              29. Catkin 20–32 mm; flower bracts densely hairy; twigs not glaucous; hairs of young leaves white only; on serpentine; 300–1300 m
S. breweri
              29' Catkin 6–12 mm; flower bracts sparsely hairy; twigs generally glaucous; hairs of young leaves generally white and rusty; not on serpentine; 1500–3600 m
4 S. geyeriana
            28' Flower bracts generally dark brown to blackish
 
              30. Twigs densely glaucous
S. drummondiana
              30' Twigs not glaucous (or thinly so)
 
                31. Twigs generally glabrous or becoming so
 
                  32. Nectary short, square
2 S. scouleriana
                  32' Nectary distinctly rod-like
 
                    33. Young leaves generally glabrous
S. planifolia subsp. planifolia
                    33' Young leaves generally densely hairy
 
                      34. Flower bracts widest at widely rounded tip, generally densely hairy; 0–2800 m
2 S. lasiolepis
                      34' Flower bracts widest at middle, sparsely to moderately hairy; 1450–3500 m
2 S. lemmonii
                31' Twigs generally persistently (sometimes densely) hairy
 
                  35. Anthers 0.4–0.6 mm; flower bracts generally obscured by hairs
2 S. lasiolepis
                  35' Anthers 0.6–1.2 mm; flower bracts sparsely to moderately hairy
 
                    36. Twigs brittle at base; on serpentine
S. delnortensis
                    36' Twigs brittle or flexible at base; not on serpentine
 
                      37. Catkins 30–60 mm, stout; twigs brittle at base; coastal dunes and meadows, generally < 100 m
S. hookeriana
                      37' Catkins 15–45 mm, slender; twigs flexible at base; upland forest to subalpine meadows, 90–3400 m
 
                        38. Nectary rod-like; leaves on catkin shoots gland-dotted or finely serrate; subalpine meadows, lake- and stream-shores, 1700–3200 m
S. boothii
                        38' Nectary square; leaves on catkin shoots entire; upland forests, meadows, 90–3400 m
2 S. scouleriana


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