Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    
 

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

    THIS PAGE IS NO LONGER UPDATED
    AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to PINUS

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Leaf-bundle sheath deciduous or mostly so; seed cone scale tip generally without prickle
 
    2. Leaves generally < 5 per bundle
 
      3. Leaves generally 4 (3–5) per bundle
P. quadrifolia
      3' Leaves generally 1–2 per bundle
 
        4. Leaves generally 2 per bundle
P. edulis
        4' Leaves generally 1 per bundle
P. monophylla
    2' Leaves 5 per bundle
 
      5. Seed cone generally torn apart by animals, generally not on ground intact; seed wings persistent on scale
P. albicaulis
      5' Seed cone not torn apart by animals, generally on ground intact; seed wings persistent on scale or not
 
        6. Seed cone scale thinnest at tip, without prickle
 
          7. Seed cone stalk < 2 cm; seed wings narrow, generally persistent on scale
P. flexilis
          7' Seed cone stalk > 2 cm; seed wings broad, deciduous from scale
 
            8. Seed cone generally > 20 cm; mature bark thick, reddish brown
P. lambertiana
            8' Seed cone generally < 20 cm; mature bark thin, dark gray
P. monticola
        6' Seed cone scale thickest at tip, with prickle
 
          9. Scale knob tip with 2–6 mm prickle; trunks often multiple
P. longaeva
          9' Scale knob tip with < 1 mm prickle; trunks generally single
P. balfouriana
            10. Leaf ± yellow-green; bark reddish brown, in ± square plates; s Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
subsp. austrina
            10' Leaf ± blue-green; bark gray-brown, in ± narrow ridges; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges
subsp. balfouriana
  1' Leaf-bundle sheath persistent; seed cone scale tip with prickle, at least when immature (sometimes 0 at maturity)
 
    11. Leaves 2 per bundle
 
      12. Seed cone > 5 cm; leaf generally 5–15 cm
P. muricata
      12' Seed cone < 5 cm; leaf 2.5–8.6 cm
P. contorta
        13. Seed cone generally closed at maturity, asymmetric
subsp. bolanderi
        13' Seed cone open at maturity, asymmetric or ± symmetric
 
          14. Seed cone persisting on stem many years after opening
subsp. contorta
          14' Seed cone deciduous after opening
subsp. murrayana
    11' Leaves 3 or 5 per bundle
 
      15. Leaves 5 per bundle
P. torreyana
      15' Leaves 3 per bundle
 
        16. Basal seed cone scale tips recurved, elongated 3–7 cm; seed cone scale prickles generally worn off by maturity
 
          17. Seed cone yellowish; seed < wing; leaf dark green
P. coulteri
          17' Seed cone brownish; seed > wing; leaf gray-green
P. sabiniana
        16' Basal seed cone scale tips rarely recurved, then elongated < 3 cm; seed cone scales (except sometimes upper) with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm at maturity
 
          18. Seed cones persisting on stems many years after maturity
 
            19. Seed cone scale tips, except upper, with an angular knob > 2 cm
P. attenuata
            19' Seed cone scale tips, except upper, with a rounded knob < 2 cm
P. radiata
          18' Seed cones deciduous after maturity
 
            20. Seed cone generally < 9 cm; leaf generally 7–12 cm
P. washoensis
            20' Seed cone generally > 9 cm; leaf generally > 15 cm
 
              21. Lower surface of seed cone scale generally not darker than upper; leaf grayish blue-green, glaucous; bark odor banana-, pineapple-, or vanilla-like
P. jeffreyi
              21' Lower surface of seed cone scale generally darker than upper; leaf deep yellow-green; bark odor not banana-, pineapple-, or vanilla-like
P. ponderosa


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