Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Leaf simple, ± toothed; calyx lobes generally 2 (4 in some plants); fruit ± lanceolate in outline
    2. Upper corolla lip hooded, not beaked; leaf crenate; stems generally simple
P. crenulata
    2' Upper corolla lip extended in a long, down-curved beak; leaf serrate to dentate; stems generally branched above
P. racemosa
  1' Leaf deeply lobed to compound; calyx lobes 5; fruit ovoid
    3. Lower cauline leaf segments generally 3–5(7), ovate, entire to toothed, terminal largest; basal leaves 0 at flowering
P. howellii
    3' Lower cauline leaf segments > 5, serrate to divided, terminal segment not largest; basal leaves generally present at flowering (except P. bracteosa)
      4. Corolla not club-like, upper lip with a long narrow, beak, lower lip ± fan-like
        5. Corolla white to yellowish, upper lip 4–5.5 mm, beak curved downward, not very trunk-like
P. contorta
        5' Corolla pink to purple, upper lip 3.5–18 mm, beak curved upward, ± like an elephant's trunk
          6. Inflorescence densely hairy; beak 3–5 mm; lower lip ± fan-like
P. attollens
          6' Inflorescence generally glabrous; beak 6–13 mm; outer lobes of lower lip appearing like ears
P. groenlandica
      4' Corolla ± club-like, upper lip hooded, not beaked; lower lip not fan-like
        7. Corolla deep red to red-purple (or yellow to orange), lower lip ± 1/4 upper
P. densiflora
        7' Corolla yellowish or purplish, lower lip generally >> 1/4 upper
          8. Stem 30–90 cm; inflorescence > leaves; basal leaves generally 0 at flowering; corolla yellowish
P. bracteosa var. flavida
          8' Stem < 30 cm; inflorescence generally < or = leaves; basal leaves present at flowering; corolla yellowish or purplish
            9. Corolla yellowish (sometimes purple-tipped), hairy; filaments hairy
P. semibarbata
            9' Corolla purplish, glabrous; filaments glabrous
              10. Corolla 30–42 mm, pale purple, darker-tipped, lower lip > 1/2 upper, its lobes rounded, wavy-margined; leaf margin wavy, white, thickened
P. centranthera
              10' Corolla 17–24 mm, purple to purplish red, lower lip < upper, its lobes pointed, not wavy-margined; leaf margin not wavy, white, or thickened
P. dudleyi

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