Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Flowers 1–20; pedicels long, scapose; bractlets on pedicel 0 (sect. Gymnocaulis)
    2. Flowers generally 5–20; stem (peduncle + inflorescence axis) > 5 cm; bracts > 6; upper pedicels < stem; corolla lobes glabrous to soft-hairy, hairs colorless
O. fasciculata
    2' Flowers generally 1–3; stem (peduncle + inflorescence axis) generally < 5 cm; bracts generally < 6; upper pedicels > stem; corolla lobes minutely ciliate, hairs violet
O. uniflora
  1' Flowers generally > 20; pedicels 0 or short, not scapose; bractlets on pedicel 2
    3. Branches at stem base many, slender, yellow; inflorescence open, flowers becoming well separated; calyx generally 4-lobed, cut deepest on upper side; agricultural weed (sect. Trionychon)
O. ramosa
    3' Branches at stem base few, stout; inflorescence dense, generally remaining so; calyx 5-lobed, cut ± equally or deepest on lower side; native (sect. Nothaphyllon)
      4. Inflorescence and flowers ± dark purple (lighter in O. pinorum); calyx generally 5–11 mm (–12 mm in O. cooperi)
        5. Calyx divided to base on lower side; hairs of inflorescence and corolla papillate, not glandular; root attachment rounded, coral-like; generally on Adenostoma fasciculatum
O. bulbosa
        5' Calyx divided ± equally; most hairs of inflorescence and corolla glandular, not papillate; root attachment not rounded and coral-like (except O. pinorum, sometimes O. cooperi); on various shrubs and herbs
          6. Inflorescence and corolla pale purple-tinged; corolla with a ring of hairs at base of filaments; root attachment rounded, coral-like
O. pinorum
          6' Inflorescence and corolla dark purple; corolla lacking ring of hairs; root attachment branched (rarely rounded, coral-like in O. cooperi)
            7. Inflorescence 4–5 cm wide; corolla 18–32 mm, lips 5–10 mm; on herbs of Asteraceae; Desert
O. cooperi
            7' Inflorescence 2–3 cm wide; corolla 12–18 mm, lips 3–5 mm; on shrubs, generally in chaparral
O. valida
              8. Corolla 14–18 mm, hairy outside, densely so at sinuses, hairs 0.4–0.7 mm; filament base and anther hairy
subsp. howellii
              8' Corolla 12–14 mm, puberulent outside, weakly so to glabrous at sinus, hairs ± 0.1 mm; filament base and anther glabrous
subsp. valida
      4' Inflorescence and flowers generally buff to pinkish, corolla lips white to pink or lavender with darker veins (purple in O. californica subsp. c.); calyx generally 10–20 mm
        9. Corolla 15–30 mm, lips 4–10 mm, upper erect, lower spreading
          10. Inflorescence 3–4 cm, branched, forming a convex or ± flat-topped cluster; anthers densely hairy throughout; Great Basin Floristic Province, adjacent Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains
O. corymbosa
          10' Inflorescence > 4 cm, of long, generally unbranched, ± raceme-like units; anthers glabrous or hairy along dehisced margin
            11. Upper corolla lobes acute, tips mostly pointed; bracts lanceolate, veins 3–5, inconspicuous; flowers short-pedicelled throughout; California Floristic Province (except c&s Southwestern California)
O. vallicola
            11' Upper corolla lobes obtuse, tips rounded to blunt; bracts ± ovate, veins > 5, conspicuous; only lower flowers pedicelled; Southwestern California, Desert
O. parishii
              12. Corolla 15–24 mm, lips 4–6 mm; calyx lobes generally 7–10 mm; Central Coast, South Coast, Channel Islands
subsp. brachyloba
              12' Corolla 20–25 mm, lips 6–8 mm; calyx lobes 10–16 mm; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Mojave Desert
subsp. parishii
        9' Corolla 20–50 mm, lips 10–14 mm, widely flaring (see also O. corymbosa for plants of High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province)
O. californica
          13. Corolla lips generally purple; calyx lobes, pedicels, and bracts purplish, drying dark purple; coastal dunes and hills, North Coast, n&c Central Coast
subsp. californica
          13' Corolla lips buff to yellowish to pinkish or purple-tinged; calyx lobes, pedicels, and bracts pale to pink-tinged, drying brown; California Floristic Province, inland (except subsp. grandis)
            14. Corolla tube ± stout, > 4 mm wide at constriction, abruptly expanded to form hump-back throat; lips moderately recurved — s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, s East of Sierra Nevada
subsp. feudgei
            14' Corolla tube slender below, < 4 mm at constriction, gradually expanded; lips widely recurved
              15. Corolla 35–50 mm, lower lobes narrowly ovate, > 5 mm wide
subsp. grandis
              15' Corolla 20–35 mm, lower lobes narrowly triangular to oblong, < 5 mm wide
                16. Plant 4–10 cm; stem below inflorescence < 5 cm; inflorescence ± flat- or convex-topped cluster < 5 cm; moist or vernally wet places
subsp. grayana
                16' Plant 10–35 cm; stem below inflorescence generally > 6 cm; inflorescence elongate, 5–20 cm; dry places
subsp. jepsonii

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