Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Calyx > 12 mm; corolla white to rose or red-orange, lobes 1/5–1/2 tube; perennial herb
    2. Corolla 35–45 mm, red-orange to yellow, tube funnel-shaped, 1.5–3 mm wide at top, lobes ascending; calyx 20–25 mm; anthers 1.2–1.5 mm
M. macrantha
      3. Stem hairy; leaf triangular-ovate, sparsely to densely hairy, ciliate
subsp. hallii
      3' Stem glabrous to sparsely hairy; leaf elliptic to ovate, ± glabrous, not ciliate
subsp. macrantha
    2' Corolla 15–30 mm, white to cream-yellow or rose-tinged, tube cylindric, 0.5–1.5 mm wide at top, lobes spreading; calyx 12–20 mm; anthers < 1 mm
M. nana
      4. Corolla tube ± 1–1.5 mm wide at top; leaf generally > 10 mm, green, glabrous to sparsely spreading-hairy
        5. Corolla cream-yellow, tube 1.5–2 × calyx, lobes 7–10 mm
subsp. leptosiphon
        5' Corolla white, tube 1.25–1.5 × calyx, lobes 6–7 mm
subsp. nana
      4' Corolla tube ± 0.5–1 mm wide; leaf generally 5–15 mm, ash-gray, densely ± appressed-puberulent
        6. Calyx hairs ± dense, generally > 1 mm, wavy
subsp. arida
        6' Calyx hairs ± sparse, generally < 1 mm, straight
subsp. tenuiflora
  1' Calyx < 12 mm; corolla white to straw or purple, lobes > 1/2 tube; annual, perennial herb
    7. Leaf margin wavy, generally ± entire (less often ± serrate)
      8. Leaf < 10 mm, narrowly ovate to triangular-ovate; subalpine forests; s High Sierra Nevada
M. beneolens
      8' Leaf > 10 mm, linear to ovate; dunes, scrub; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
        9. Annual; stem glabrous or sparsely hairy
M. undulata
        9' Perennial; stem sparsely hairy to densely tomentose
          10. Stem densely white-tomentose; head 20–30 mm wide; middle bracts 7–15 mm; leaf oblanceolate to ovate, fleshy, appearing glaucous
M. crispa
          10' Stem purple, ± sparsely hairy; head 10–20 mm wide; middle bracts 7–10 mm; leaf linear to narrowly lanceolate, thin, green
M. frutescens
    7' Leaf margin faintly or not wavy, entire to serrate
      11. Annual; heads several–many per main stem, arrayed in panicles
        12. Bract lateral veins ± perpendicular to midvein, areas between veins silvery-translucent
M. douglasii
          13. Stem slender; head 10–15 mm wide; bracts 10–15 mm, narrowly ovate
subsp. douglasii
          13' Stem stout; head 20–30 mm wide; bracts 15–30 mm, widely ovate
subsp. venosa
        12' Bract lateral veins ± parallel to midvein, areas between veins leaf-like, membranous, or scarious but not silvery
          14. Bracts not white; calyx lobes not white; corolla rose or purple, rarely white
            15. Bracts long-hairy
M. pringlei
            15' Bracts short-hairy
              16. Bracts acuminate, not cross-veined; calyx 14–15-veined
M. breweri
              16' Bracts acute, cross-veined; calyx 13-veined
M. lanceolata
          14' Bracts at least partly white; calyx lobes or lobe tips or margins white; corolla generally or mostly white
            17. Calyx lobe tips awl-like, recurved; bracts white throughout; stamens included
M. leucocephala
            17' Calyx lobe tips acute, erect; bracts partly white; stamens slightly exserted
              18. Main stem 1° branches above middle; bracts ovate, cross-veined; Sierra Nevada Foothills
M. candicans
              18' Main stem 1° branches generally below middle; bracts generally narrowly ovate, not cross-veined; s San Joaquin Valley, Mojave Desert
M. exilis
      11' Perennial; heads generally 1 per main stem (or few, arrayed in spikes or racemes in M. follettii, M. robisonii, M. siskiyouensis, M. stebbinsii)
        19. Middle bracts like leaves in texture and hairiness, greenish, generally reflexed (innermost of middle series sometimes ± scarious) — lower leaf surface glandular-hairy
          20. Leaf narrowly to widely ovate, soft-hairy, wavy-hairy, or woolly (hairs generally > 0.5 mm except subsp. obispoensis), lower surface woolly or not
M. villosa
            21. Leaf ovate to widely triangular-ovate, base generally truncate; stem generally densely matted-woolly (or ± glabrous)
subsp. franciscana
            21' Leaf ± narrowly ovate, base tapered to obtuse; stem generally sparsely to densely spreading-hairy (or ± glabrous)
              22. Some hairs branched; old plants tufted to matted; corolla white to lavender
subsp. obispoensis
              22' Hairs unbranched; plants matted or not; corolla pink to purple
                23. Plant > 50 cm; leaf blade 22–50 mm; head 20–40 mm wide; outer bracts 20–30 mm
subsp. globosa
                23' Plant < 50 cm; leaf blade 10–22 mm; head 10–30 mm wide; outer bracts 8–20 mm
subsp. villosa
          20' Leaf lanceolate to narrowly ovate, glabrous, canescent, or stiff-hairy (hairs generally < 0.5 mm), lower surface not woolly
            24. Plant sparsely to densely appressed- to spreading-hairy, whitish; head generally < 15 mm wide; middle bracts erect, in cup-like involucre
M. antonina
              25. Plant open, generally > 60 cm; leaf greenish, not folded; hairs appressed to ascending, short, often sparse, not hiding glands of stem and calyx
subsp. antonina
              25' Plant tufted, generally < 60 cm; leaf whitish, often folded; hairs spreading, long, generally dense, hiding glands of stem and calyx
subsp. benitensis
            24' Plant glabrous to densely and minutely canescent, green to ash-gray; head 10–30 mm wide; middle bract tips recurved
              26. Inner bracts 2–many; plant glabrous to densely and minutely canescent
M. sheltonii
              26' Inner bracts 0; plant densely and minutely canescent
M. siskiyouensis
        19' Middle bracts generally not like leaves in either texture or hairiness, papery to leathery, greenish to white, straw, or purple, erect or spreading (outermost of middle series sometime like leaves, at least at tips)
          27. Outer bracts present or 0; middle bracts scarious or papery, elliptic to ovate, erect, in cup-like involucre (not always apparent on pressed material)
            28. Outer bract series present; middle bracts scarious or membranous, greenish to rose, sometime ± purple-tinged
              29. Middle bracts long-acuminate, rose (or scarious and rose-tinged); calyx lobes hairy; corolla rose; Transverse Ranges
M. australis
              29' Middle bracts acute to obtuse, scarious, greenish, lavender- to rose- to purple-tinged or not; calyx lobes woolly; corolla white to purple; n California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province
M. odoratissima
                30. Outer bracts spreading, generally < 25 mm; corolla generally purple, less often lavender or white
subsp. odoratissima
                30' Outer bracts reflexed, generally 25–40 mm; corolla generally white, sometimes ± purple-tinged
subsp. pallida
            28' Outer bract series 0; middle bracts papery, whitish to straw or purple, sometimed rose- or purple-tinged, less often grayish
              31. Stem green, dark gray, or appearing glaucous; leaf elliptic, narrowly ovate, or ovate; n California
M. glauca
              31' Stem silvery to ash-gray with densely matted hairs; leaf linear to narrowly ovate; s California
M. linoides
                32. Leaf silvery or ash-gray; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, eastern San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
                  33. Leaf linear, oblong, or lanceolate, 10–40 mm; bracts = or > calyces
subsp. linoides
                  33' Leaf narrowly ovate, 10–15 mm; bracts > calyces
subsp. oblonga
                32' Leaf greenish or appearing glaucous; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
                  34. Leaf generally 10–20 mm; plant rhizomed; bracts obscurely gland-dotted; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains
subsp. stricta
                  34' Leaf 20–40 mm; plant taprooted; bracts conspicuously gland-dotted; s Peninsular Ranges (San Diego Co.)
subsp. viminea
          27' Outer bracts present; middle bracts firm, leathery or scarious, lanceolate to ovate, reflexed to ascending, generally not in cup-like involucre
            35. Leaves and lower stem ± glabrous
              36. Bracts and calyces conspicuously gland-dotted; head generally < 15 mm wide; bracts lanceolate or narrowly ovate
M. follettii
              36' Bracts and calyces obscurely gland-dotted; head generally > 15 mm wide; bracts narrowly ovate to ovate
                37. Corolla lobes < 1/2 tube; calyx 9–12 mm
M. palmeri
                37' Corolla lobes > 1/2 tube; calyx 6–8 mm
M. purpurea
            35' Leaves and stem hairy
              38. Leaf surfaces both greenish or ash- to dark gray, purple blotched or not, sparsely to densely hairy; heads 1–several per main stem; Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Desert Mountains
                39. Upper stem hairs dense, felt-like
M. stebbinsii
                39' Upper stem hairs sparse to dense but not felt-like
                  40. Leaf 5–10 mm, generally few-toothed; head 1 per main stem; plant matted or tufted; s Outer South Coast Ranges?, eastern San Gabriel Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains?
M. cinerea
                  40' Leaf 10–40 mm, entire; heads generally several per main stem; plant open; Desert Mountains
M. robisonii
              38' Leaf surfaces unequally colored, lower surface ± white- or ash-gray-canescent, felt-like, or woolly, upper surface greener, hairs 0 to dense; heads generally 1 per main stem; s Inner North Coast Ranges, South Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
                41. Leaf thick, lower surface felt-like or woolly; corolla white to pale lavender
M. hypoleuca
                  42. Stem hairs 0 to sparse; leaf narrowly ovate, ± flat between rolled-under margins
subsp. hypoleuca
                  42' Stem hairs ± dense; leaf linear-lanceolate, ± arched between rolled-under margins
subsp. lanata
                41' Leaf thin, lower surface canescent; corolla lavender, rose, or purple
M. viridis
                  43. Head > 20 mm wide; bracts generally 10–20 mm; San Gabriel Mountains
subsp. saxicola
                  43' Head 10–15(21) mm wide; bracts generally 6–10 mm; s Inner North Coast Ranges
subsp. viridis

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