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The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to MIMULUS

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Pedicel generally > calyx; corolla deciduous (except M. breweri), not salverform; placentas axile, fused, not parted by fruit dehiscence (subg. Mimulus)
 
    2. Perennial; corolla lavender to purple or orange to red — corolla tube-throat > 2 cm
 
      3. Leaf pinnately veined; corolla lavender to purple, mouth nearly closed by swollen lower lip base (sect. Mimulus)
M. ringens
      3' Leaf palmately veined; corolla lavender to purple or orange to red, mouth open (sect. Erythranthe)
 
        4. Corolla orange to red, anthers, stigma exserted but arched in upper lip
M. cardinalis
        4' Corolla lavender to purple, anthers, stigma included
M. lewisii
    2' Generally annual; corolla color various, including yellow (if perennial herb, corolla yellow)
 
      5. Calyx in fruit strongly and asymmetrically swollen, uppermost lobe longest, lowest 2 generally upcurved; corolla yellow, lower lip base generally swollen, ± closing mouth (sect. Simiolus)
 
        6. Bracts at nodes subtending flowers fused around stem completely, forming ± circular disk, glaucous
M. glaucescens
        6' Bracts or leaves at nodes subtending flowers petioled or fused around stem only at their bases, not forming circular disk, not glaucous
 
          7. Leaves or at least some ± pinnately lobed or dissected into narrow segments
M. laciniatus
          7' Leaves ± entire or ± crenate, not pinnately lobed or dissected (but base often irregularly dissected or small-lobed)
 
            8. Bract or leaf pairs at nodes subtending flowers linear to lanceolate, not fused at base
M. nudatus
            8' Bract or leaf pairs at nodes subtending flowers ovate to cordate or round, sometimes fused at base around stem
 
              9. Flowers generally > 5 in a definite, bracted raceme; annual or perennial herb; corolla tube-throat 2–40 mm; flowers cleistogamous or opening
M. guttatus
              9' Flowers 1–5 per stem, solitary in axils of upper leaves, not in bracted raceme; perennial herb; corolla tube-throat 17–45 mm; flowers opening
M. tilingii
      5' Calyx in fruit not (or symmetrically) swollen, lobes generally ± equal or lowest 2 longest, not upcurved; corolla yellow or not, lower lip base not swollen, not closing mouth
 
        10. Calyx lobes ± = tube; plant hairs dense, long, soft, wavy (sect. Mimuloides)
M. pilosus
        10' Calyx lobes << tube; plant glabrous, puberulent, or hairs ± straight (sect. Paradanthus)
 
          11. Perennial; stolons or rhizomes present
 
            12. Calyx glabrous; leaf palmately 3-veined
M. primuloides
              13. Leaves linear to oblanceolate, ± erect, some ± basal but not in rosettes
subsp. linearifolius
              13' Leaves oblong to obovate, generally ± spreading in ± distinct rosettes
subsp. primuloides
            12' Calyx ± glabrous to hairy; leaf pinnately 5- or more veined
 
              14. Corolla tube-throat 28–40 mm, tube funnel-shaped, generally > 4 mm wide
M. dentatus
              14' Corolla tube-throat 15–26 mm, tube ± cylindric, 2–4 mm wide except at mouth
M. moschatus
          11' Annual; stolons and rhizomes 0
 
            15. Calyx tube ± hairy
 
              16. Leaf palmately veined; calyx 8–10(13 in fruit) mm; corolla pinkish to white
M. parishii
              16' Leaf pinnately veined or ± so; calyx 3–8 mm; corolla yellow
 
                17. Corolla lobe bases without large blotches; calyx lobes ± acute; pedicel in fruit not growing away from light
M. floribundus
                17' Corolla lobe bases each with 1 large, central, maroon-purple blotch; calyx lobes rounded; pedicel in fruit growing away from light
M. norrisii
            15' Calyx tube glabrous to puberulent
 
              18. Calyx in fruit greatly swollen, membranous; corolla overall lavender or rose to whitish or yellow
 
                19. Upper leaves sessile; corolla lavender or rose to whitish or yellow
 
                  20. Corolla tube-throat 7–16 mm, limb < 14 mm wide; drained upland areas
M. inconspicuus
                  20' Corolla tube-throat 7–11 mm, limb 4–6 mm wide; vernally wet depressions
M. latidens
                19' Upper leaves petioled; corolla yellow (rarely whitish with pinkish border in M. pulsiferae)
 
                  21. Corolla tube-throat 3–6.5 mm
M. breviflorus
                  21' Corolla tube-throat 7–13 mm
M. pulsiferae
              18' Calyx in fruit slightly enlarging but not or slightly swollen, ± corky or membranous; corolla purple, lavender, yellow, or partly white
 
                22. Corolla lobes yellow or white
 
                  23. Lower calyx lobes > upper
M. alsinoides
                  23' Lower calyx lobes ± = upper
 
                    24. Corolla tube-throat 4–10 mm
 
                      25. Corolla tube-throat 6–10 mm; calyx lobes ciliate
2 M. rubellus
                      25' Corolla tube-throat 4–6 mm; calyx lobes glabrous
M. suksdorfii
                    24' Corolla tube-throat 10–19 mm
 
                      26. White corolla lobes 0–4; calyx in fruit ± corky; pedicel in fruit thickened, ± rigid
M. bicolor
                      26' White corolla lobes 0; calyx in fruit membranous; pedicel in fruit thin, flexible
2 M. montioides
                22' Corolla lobes, or some, maroon, purple, rose, or lavender
 
                  27. Corolla tube-throat generally 2–10 mm (if 8–10 mm, then calyx lobes ciliate, corolla pink to lavender)
 
                    28. Corolla tube-throat 2–3.5 mm and deciduous (or 4.5–8 mm and persistent); calyx lobes puberulent but not ciliate
 
                      29. Calyx 3.5–9 mm, > fruit; corolla tube-throat > 4.5–8 mm, persistent
M. breweri
                      29' Calyx 2–3.5 mm, < fruit; corolla tube-throat 2–3.5 mm, deciduous
M. exiguus
                    28' Corolla tube-throat 5–10 mm, deciduous; calyx lobes ± glabrous or ciliate
 
                      30. Calyx lobes ± glabrous
M. androsaceus
                      30' Calyx lobes ciliate
 
                        31. Corolla limb 5–9 mm wide
M. gracilipes
                        31' Corolla limb 3–4 mm wide
2 M. rubellus
                  27' Corolla tube-throat > 8 mm (if 8–10 mm, calyx lobes not ciliate, some or all corolla lobes maroon or purple)
 
                    32. Upper corolla lip 4-lobed, lower lip of 1 large, notched, yellow lobe
M. shevockii
                    32' Upper corolla lip of 2 lobes, lower of 3 ± equal, partly yellow or entirely purple lobes, or corolla not lipped
 
                      33. Calyx generally with red-brown spots, in fruit with wide corky ribs, lobes acute to long-tapered
M. filicaulis
                      33' Calyx generally without spots, in fruit membranous, lobes generally obtuse to truncate
 
                        34. Leaves linear, generally 1–3 mm wide; pedicel 3–25 mm
2 M. montioides
                        34' Leaves (at least lower) ovate, > 3 mm wide; pedicel 10–65 mm
 
                          35. Corolla not lipped, tube-throat 10–22 mm, lobes equally colored; upper leaves often ± linear
M. palmeri
                          35' Corolla strongly 2-lipped, tube-throat 8–13 mm, upper lip darker; upper leaves ovate to elliptic
M. purpureus
  1' Pedicel generally < calyx; corolla persistent, (except M. pictus; placentas parietal, parted at least at tip by fruit dehiscence (or fruit hard, indehiscent) (subg. Schizoplacus)
 
    36. Shrub, subshrub, or perennial herb from woody caudex; calyx 2–4 cm; corolla tube-throat 25–60 mm; leaf edges often rolled under; main leaf axils often with clusters of smaller leaves (sect. Diplacus)
 
      37. Shrub or subshrub; leaf upper surface glabrous; calyx not swollen at base; corolla generally not yellow; fruit splitting only along upper suture
M. aurantiacus
      37' Perennial from woody caudex; leaf upper surface hairy; calyx generally swollen at base; corolla yellow; fruit 4-valved at tip
M. clevelandii
    36' Annual, rarely per; calyx generally < 2 cm, corolla tube-throat generally < 25 mm; leaf edges generally ± flat; main leaf axils not leafy
 
      38. Corolla radial, salverform, maroon and ± white, throat floor without longitudinal folds (sect. Mimulastrum)
 
        39. Corolla limb ± solid maroon at base, maroon veins appearing << 0.5 mm wide, fading into white border
M. mohavensis
        39' Corolla limb ± white ± throughout, maroon veins with much wider maroon border, so appearing > 0.5 mm wide
M. pictus
      38' Corolla bilateral, generally not maroon and white, throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds — flowers sometimes all cleistogamous
 
        40. Fruit hard, often oblique at base, indehiscent while stem alive; generally flowers March–April (later in vernally wet depressions or on desert cliffs) (sect. Oenoe)
 
          41. Stems < 1 cm, tightly tufted; leaf ± ciliate at least in basal 1/2, often ± linear; vernally wet depressions
 
            42. Corolla tube-throat 5–10 mm
M. pygmaeus
            42' Corolla tube-throat 20–60 mm
 
              43. Corolla tube-throat glabrous outside; lowest corolla lobe magenta with a large, dark purple spot at base
M. angustatus
              43' Corolla tube-throat puberulent outside; lowest corolla lobe gold with scattered, small, dark dots at base
M. pulchellus
          41' Stems generally > 1 cm, not tightly tufted but often branched; leaf generally not ciliate (or, if so, hairs not restricted to margin), generally not linear; vernally wet depressions or not
 
            44. Corolla lobes each with 1 large, dark spot at center of base; flowers opening
 
              45. Corolla pink to white; limestone crevices
M. rupicola
              45' Corolla magenta to purple; vernally wet depressions
M. tricolor
            44' Corolla without large, dark spots; flowers often cleistogamous
 
              46. Corolla tube-throat generally < 2 cm (if flowers cleistogamous then fruit angular, leaf dull purplish, petiole ciliate)
 
                47. Leaf ± ciliate on petiole, blade base; fruit 4–8.5 mm
M. congdonii
                47' Leaf not ciliate; fruit 6–11 mm
M. latifolius
              46' Corolla tube-throat 2–4.5 cm (if flowers cleistogamous then fruit ± ovoid, leaf shiny green, petiole glabrous)
 
                48. Corolla with upper lip >> lower, tube abruptly widened to long throat, throat longitudinally striped within; flowers often cleistogamous
M. douglasii
                48' Corolla with both lips well developed, often funnel-like but tube-throat not abruptly widened above, not striped within; flowers opening
 
                  49. Corolla tube-throat ± 2 × calyx, upper lip lobes magenta to red-purple
M. kelloggii
                  49' Corolla tube-throat ± = calyx, upper lip lobes white
M. traskiae
        40' Fruit fragile, symmetric at base, generally promptly dehiscent; flowers generally May–September (often earlier in deserts) (sect. Eunanus)
 
          50. All flower nodes with 1 flower or fruit developing
 
            51. Corolla throat floor densely hairy; Sierra Nevada Foothills
M. viscidus
            51' Corolla throat floor glabrous to sparsely puberulent; coastal and sw mtns, adjacent Desert
 
              52. Corolla tube-throat 10–23 mm, limb 8–26 mm wide
M. fremontii
              52' Corolla tube-throat 7–10 mm, limb 4–7 mm wide
M. rattanii
          50' At least some flower nodes (generally upper) with 2 flowers or fruits developing
 
            53. Stigma ± exserted, lobes rounded
 
              54. Upper leaf tips sharply acuminate; corolla magenta
M. cusickii
              54' Upper leaf tips rounded to acute; corolla ± magenta, lavender-purple, violet-purple, or yellow
 
                55. Corolla tube-throat 7–12 mm; fruit 4–6 mm
M. jepsonii
                55' Corolla tube-throat 9–19 mm; fruit 6–12 mm
 
                  56. Leaves and calyx hairy; corolla ± magenta or yellow
M. mephiticus
                  56' Leaves and calyx ± puberulent; corolla ± magenta to purplish
 
                    57. Calyx mouth in fruit strongly oblique
M. johnstonii
                    57' Calyx mouth in fruit slightly oblique
M. nanus
            53' Stigma including (if ± exserted, stigma lobes acute)
 
              58. Corolla tube-throat 6–8 mm, limb 3–5 mm wide
M. leptaleus
              58' Corolla tube-throat > 9 mm, limb > 5 mm wide
 
                59. Calyx 10–25 mm, corolla yellow
M. brevipes
                59' Calyx < 9 mm (or corolla pink to magenta or maroon)
 
                  60. Calyx lobes spreading, long-tapered (or upper lobe rounded, ± with small point at tip); East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
 
                    61. Calyx puberulent, often purplish throughout, upper lobe rounded, ± with small point at tip, fruit included
M. parryi
                    61' Calyx hairy, sometimes purplish on ribs, upper lobe long-tapered, fruit exserted
M. bigelovii
                      62. Lower internodes generally > upper; leaf elliptic, sometimes acuminate but not abruptly so
var. bigelovii
                      62' Lower internodes ± = upper; leaf generally wide-ovate to ± round, abruptly sharp-pointed
var. cuspidatus
                  60' Calyx lobes converging, ± erect or ± spreading, obtuse to long-tapered; California Floristic Province
 
                    63. Calyx swollen, especially in fruit
 
                      64. Corolla limb and throat floor glabrous or puberulent
M. bolanderi
                      64' Corolla limb and throat floor long-hairy
M. constrictus
                    63' Calyx not swollen
 
                      65. Calyx not ribbed, uniformly green, puberulent, lobes obtuse to acute; corolla light rose to magenta, throat floor with 2 gold stripes extending from folds onto lower lip base
M. torreyi
                      65' Calyx dark-ribbed, puberulent or ± hairy, lobes acute to long-tapered; corolla almost white to dark magenta or yellow, throat often yellowish within but floor without gold stripes
 
                        66. Corolla almost white to dark magenta with darker central marks on lobes, throat dark-spotted
M. layneae
                        66' Corolla dark magenta or yellow, lobes unmarked, throat generally dark-lined
M. whitneyi


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