Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual

Key to MADIA

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Pappus present; heads open at midday; annual or perennial herb
    2. Perennial; leaves opposite well up stem; rosette leaves widest
      3. Phyllaries 10–12 mm; anthers black; disk flowers fertile; ray achenes beakless
M. bolanderi
      3' Phyllaries 5–6 mm; anthers yellow; disk flowers staminate; ray achenes often short-beaked
M. madioides
    2' Annual; leaves mostly alternate; rosette leaves narrow
      4. Ray achenes bowed outward, short-beaked; disk flowers staminate
        5. Anthers yellow; Klamath Ranges
M. doris-nilesiae
        5' Anthers brown to black; Sierra Nevada
          6. Ray flowers 15–20, corolla 5–9 mm; disk pappus purplish
M. rammii
          6' Ray flowers 2–8, corolla 2.5–3 mm; disk pappus not purplish
M. yosemitana
      4' Ray achenes club-shaped (slightly bowed outward or not), beakless; some or all disk flowers fertile — s North Coast Ranges, n San Francisco Bay Area
        7. Disk pappus scales 0.2–0.5 mm
M. hallii
        7' Disk pappus scales 1.2–3.7 mm
          8. Heads nodding in bud and fruit; disk flowers fertile; pappus scales fringed, not plumose
M. nutans
          8' Heads generally erect; central disk flowers staminate; pappus scales plumose
M. stebbinsii
  1' Pappus 0; heads often closing by midday; annual
    9. Disk flowers 1–2, corollas glabrous; phyllary tips not flat; stems thread-like
      10. Ray achenes compressed side-to-side, sharply angled; involucre prominently yellow-glandular
M. exigua
      10' Ray achenes compressed front-to-back, not angled; involucre minutely black-glandular
M. minima
    9' Disk flowers generally 2–many, corollas puberulent; phyllary tips ± flat; stems not thread-like
      11. Ray achenes with short, off-center beak; chaff scales deciduous; heads open at midday
M. radiata
      11' Ray achenes with beak minute or 0; chaff scales persistent; heads generally closing by midday
        12. Disk flowers staminate, not forming fruits; receptacle hairy; rays flowers often very conspicuous
          13. Ray achenes barely compressed, ± triangular with wide backs; ligules inconspicuous
            14. Ligules greenish yellow; anthers black; herbage lemon-scented
M. citriodora
            14' Ligules bright yellow; anthers yellow; herbage not lemon-scented
M. elegans subsp. wheeleri
          13' Ray achenes strongly compressed, with narrow backs; ligules generally conspicuous
M. elegans
            15. Basal rosette well developed; stems stout, very leafy below, heavily glandular; phyllary tips = or > body; flower summer to autumn
subsp. densifolia
            15' Basal rosette weakly developed or 0; stems slender to ± stout, leaves crowded or well separated, moderately to heavily glandular; phyllary tips generally = body; flower spring or summer
              16. Herbage soft-hairy below, ± densely glandular above; generally > 1000 m; flower summer
subsp. elegans
              16' Herbage sparsely hairy to densely bristly, barely glandular or not below inflorescence; generally < 1000 m; flower spring
subsp. vernalis
        12' Disk flowers fertile, forming fruits; receptacle glabrous; ray flowers generally inconspicuous
          17. Ray flowers 0–3; ray achenes widest at middle, ends truncate
M. glomerata
          17' Ray flowers 3–9(14); ray achenes widest toward top, tapered to base
            18. Fruits obovoid, plump, black, shiny
M. anomala
            18' Fruits compressed side-to-side, dull
              19. Plants strongly glandular throughout; stems stout; involucre 7–15 mm
M. sativa
              19' Plants generally glandular only above middle; stems often slender; involucre generally < or = 10 mm
                20. Heads subsessile or short-peduncled, in dense spike- or raceme-like clusters
                  21. Herbage dark green; involucre 6–10 mm; widespread
M. gracilis
                  21' Herbage yellow-green; involucre 6–7 mm; Sierra Nevada Foothills
M. subspicata
                20' Heads slender-peduncled, in open raceme- or panicle-like clusters
                  22. Branches > main stem; cauline leaves widest at base; herbage densely ± appressed-soft-hairy
M. citrigracilis
                  22' Branches < main stem; cauline leaves narrow at base; herbage coarsely spreading-hairy
M. gracilis

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