Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Flower nodding (between horizontal and hanging vertically) to erect; perianth segments generally weakly recurved (except L. maritimum)
    2. Perianth ± white (often aging purple or pink); flowers horizontal to erect
      3. Outer perianth segments 4–7 cm; flower ascending to erect; bulb scales unsegmented; Northwestern California, San Francisco Bay Area
L. rubescens
      3' Outer perianth segments 6–12 cm; flower nodding to ascending; bulb scales sometimes crimped or segmented; Klamath Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range
L. washingtonianum
        4. Perianth aging deep pink or lavender; some bulb scales generally crimped or segmented; perianth 6–10 cm; Klamath Ranges
subsp. purpurascens
        4' Perianth aging ± white; crimped or segmented bulb scales generally 0; perianth 8–12 cm; Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range
subsp. washingtonianum
    2' Perianth yellow to red (rarely pink); flowers nodding to ascending
      5. Perianth bright yellow, segments 7–11 cm; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
L. parryi
      5' Perianth red, orange, or pink (rarely pale off-yellow), segments < 5 cm; North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Sierra Nevada
        6. Leaf 1.8–7 cm, glaucous, margins generally wavy; longest bulb scales 3–6 cm, unsegmented; bulb ovoid; dry places; Klamath Ranges
L. bolanderi
        6' Leaf 3–18 cm, not obviously glaucous, margins generally not wavy; longest bulb scales < 3 cm (except large plants), generally segmented; bulb horizontal, rhizome-like; ± wet or seasonally inundated places; North Coast, Sierra Nevada
          7. Perianth red (rarely red-orange) on both surfaces (except base green), tips strongly recurved; flower nodding to horizontal; fruit 2.4–4 cm; bulb scales 0(2)-segmented; North Coast
L. maritimum
          7' Perianth yellowish, yellow-orange, or pinkish (if reddish, only on distal 40% of inner surfaces), tips weakly recurved; flower nodding to ascending; fruit 1.5–3 cm; bulb scales generally 2–3-segmented; Sierra Nevada
L. parvum
  1' Flower pendent (hanging vertically) (sometimes some nodding); perianth segments strongly recurved
    8. Perianth white to pink (generally aging pink), midribs yellow; Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges
L. kelloggii
    8' Perianth yellow to red; widespread
      9. Plant of ± dry places; perianth yellow or orange; longest bulb scale > 3 cm, segmented or not; bulb ± ovoid, erect
        10. Pistil 2.4–4 cm; perianth segments 3–7 cm; anthers 6–13 mm; fruit 1–2 cm diam; Northwestern California
L. columbianum
        10' Pistil 4.5–7 cm; perianth segments 5–10 mm; anthers 11–19 mm; fruit 1.8–3.5 cm diam; s High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California
L. humboldtii
          11. Perianth uniformly orange, red spots unmargined; bulb scales unsegmented, off-white; s High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
subsp. humboldtii
          11' Perianth yellow-orange, red spots near tip margined with lighter red; bulb scales crimped or segmented, often purplish; Southwestern California, s Outer South Coast Ranges
subsp. ocellatum
      9' Plant of ± moist places; perianth yellow to reddish; longest bulb scales < 3 cm (except large plants), generally segmented; bulb horizontal, rhizome-like
        12. Perianth ± uniformly yellow or yellow-orange (green at base)
          13. Flower mildly fragrant; anthers 3–6 mm, magenta or dull red; pistil 2.5–3.5 cm; fruit 1.5–3 cm; not clonal; c&s High Sierra Nevada
L. kelleyanum
          13' Flower not fragrant; anthers 5–13 mm, yellow; pistil 3–5 cm; fruit 2.5–4 cm; weakly clonal; Klamath Ranges
L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
        12' Perianth ± 2-toned, with green, yellow, or orange centers, darker orange or red tips
          14. Perianth red to maroon (rarely orange), center green to yellow, outer surface green on basal 40–50%, segments 4–8 cm; filaments ± parallel; rhizome unbranched; North Coast
L. occidentale
          14' Perianth yellow to orange, tips redder, outer surface green only on basal ± 20%, segments 3–11 cm; filaments spreading; rhizome often branched; California Floristic Province
most L. pardalinum
            15. Perianth segments 5–11 cm; generally in large clones; anthers 10–17 mm; California Floristic Province
subsp. pardalinum
            15' Perianth segments 3.5–9 cm; generally in small clones; anthers 5–14 mm; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada
              16. Leaf ± linear (length 7–35 × width); Klamath Ranges
subsp. vollmeri
              16' Leaf ± elliptic (length 2–13 × width); Klamath Ranges and elsewhere
                17. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; bulb scales generally 2-segmented; s Outer North Coast Ranges
subsp. pitkinense
                17' Pollen generally yellow to bright orange; anthers generally orange (magenta); bulb scales generally 2–4-segmented; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada
subsp. shastense

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