Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    
 

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to GALIUM

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Annual
 
    2. Corolla lobes generally 3
 
      3. Leaves in whorls of 2–4; flowers generally solitary in axils
G. bifolium
      3' Leaves in whorls of 4–6; flowers several in axils
2 G. trifidum
        4. Plant weak, straggling
var. pacificum
        4' Plant tufted or matted, dwarfed
var. pusillum
    2' Corolla lobes generally 4
 
      5. Nutlets sausage-shaped, with unevenly distributed, hooked hairs
G. murale
      5' Nutlets ± spheric, glabrous or with evenly distributed, hooked hairs, sometimes with hair-like tubercles
 
        6. Leaves in whorls of 2–4; fruit with hooked hairs
G. proliferum
        6' Leaves in whorls of 5–8; fruit with or without hooked hairs
 
          7. Plant erect, very slender; leaf < 7 mm
 
            8. Fruit glabrous; leaf seldom or little reflexed
G. divaricatum
            8' Fruit generally with hooked hairs; leaf eventually reflexed
G. parisiense
          7' Plant generally climbing or decumbent, coarse; leaf 13–32 mm
 
            9. Fruit with hooked hairs, the pair of nutlets < 4 mm wide; pedicel slender, spreading
G. aparine
            9' Fruit with hair-like tubercles, without hairs, the pair of nutlets > 4 mm wide; pedicel stout, recurved
G. tricornutum
  1' Perennial or shrub
 
    10. Corolla generally 3-lobed; fruit 2 nutlets, spheric, smooth, hard
2 G. trifidum
      11. Plant weak, straggling
var. pacificum
      11' Plant tufted or matted, dwarfed
var. pusillum
    10' Corolla generally 4-lobed; fruit 2 nutlets, various, or a berry
 
      12. Fruit hairs hooked
 
        13. Leaves in whorls of 4
G. oreganum
        13' Leaves in whorls of 6
G. triflorum
      12' Fruit hairs 0 or not hooked
 
        14. Flowers bisexual
 
          15. Leaves in whorls of 4
G. boreale subsp. septentrionale
          15' Leaves in whorls of 5–12
 
            16. Corolla yellow
G. verum
            16' Corolla white
 
              17. Plants forming dense mats in lawns; stems 7–15 cm
G. saxatile
              17' Plants ascending or decumbent, not forming mats; stems 30–120 cm
 
                18. Corolla bell-shaped; ovaries with short, upwardly curved hairs
G. mexicanum var. asperulum
                18' Corolla rotate; ovaries glabrous or with small tubercles
 
                  19. Leaf generally < 15 mm, obovate to oblanceolate
G. mollugo
                  19' Leaf generally 25–60 mm, narrowly elliptic
G. schultesii
        14' Flowers generally unisexual, either anthers or ovaries small, sterile — leaves in whorls of 4 (except G. hardhamiae, sometimes G. clementis)
 
          20. Fruit a berry, hairiness like that of herbage
 
            21. Leaves in whorls of 6
G. hardhamiae
            21' Leaves in whorls of 4 (sometimes 6 in G. clementis)
 
              22. Plant low, generally not woody above ground
 
                23. Leaf ± bristle-like, sharp to touch, ± thick; dry areas
G. andrewsii
                  24. Plant dense, internode < leaf, and a main stem not apparent, and leaf generally awl-like, keeled, ascending; herbage not hairy
subsp. andrewsii
                  24' Plant elongate, internode > leaf, or a main stem apparent, or leaf wider than awl-like, flat, or spreading; herbage hairy or not
 
                    25. Herbage sometimes hairy; leaf often flat, lanceolate, spreading; plant open, a main stem apparent
subsp. gatense
                    25' Herbage generally not hairy; leaf flat or ± keeled, narrower than lanceolate, generally ascending; plant ± dense, a main stem ± not apparent
subsp. intermedium
                23' Leaf linear to elliptic, not sharp to touch, generally thin (except G. ambiguum var. siskiyouense); moist areas
 
                  26. Leaf ± linear, generally ciliate
G. ambiguum
                    27. Leaf generally thin, ± finely hairy, margins ± parallel; ovary, fruit generally glabrous or velvety
var. ambiguum
                    27' Leaf often thick, generally glabrous or with marginal bristles, margins generally convex; ovary, fruit densely hairy
var. siskiyouense
                  26' Leaf ovate, elliptic, oblanceolate, or seeming linear, not ciliate (or hairs at least not restricted to margin)
 
                    28. Leaf seeming linear, margin strongly turned down; Outer South Coast Ranges
G. clementis
                    28' Leaf generally ovate, elliptic, or oblanceolate, margin not or slightly turned down; widespread
 
                      29. Leaf with few hairs, 6–10 mm; stem generally glabrous
G. muricatum
                      29' Leaf ± hairy, 3–20 mm; stem generally hairy
2 G. californicum
                        30. Plant open; mainland
subsp. californicum
                        30' Plant dense; n Channel Islands
subsp. miguelense
              22' Plant often climbing, ± woody above ground
 
                31. Herbage generally with minute prickles; woody stem often long, slender, climbing or sprawling
 
                  32. Leaf often obtuse or rounded but tip often with a short point, generally not sharp to touch
G. porrigens
                    33. Leaf broadly ovate to oblong
var. porrigens
                    33' Leaf ± linear
var. tenue
                  32' Leaf generally tapered, tip often sharp to touch
 
                    34. Herbage loosely sprawling, not climbing high, generally remaining green; Outer South Coast Ranges
G. californicum subsp. maritimum
                    34' Herbage densely tangled, climbing high, maturing red; South Coast, s Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
G. nuttallii
                      35. Herbage generally glabrous; s Channel Islands
subsp. insulare
                      35' Herbage with tiny, sharp, curved hairs; South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
subsp. nuttallii
                31' Herbage generally without prickles; woody stem generally short
 
                  36. Leaf ± glabrous, except sometimes margin, or puberulent
 
                    37. Leaf sharp to touch at tip, 1-veined; Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges
G. cliftonsmithii
                    37' Leaf not sharp to touch at tip, ± 3-veined; n of Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges
 
                      38. Leaf lance-ovate to elliptic, sessile (at least broadly attached); inflorescence branchlets ± stout; corolla generally red
2 G. bolanderi
                      38' Leaf broadly elliptic to ovate, ± petioled; inflorescence branchlets thread-like; corolla generally yellowish — Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, n Inner South Coast Ranges
G. sparsiflorum
                        39. Leaf generally glabrous, ovate, ± leathery
subsp. glabrius
                        39' Leaf puberulent, elliptic or sometimes ± ovate, generally limp
subsp. sparsiflorum
                  36' Leaf hairy
 
                    40. Woody stems ± stout, ± stiff; montane
 
                      41. Plant sprawling widely on low shrubs; leaf generally broadly elliptic; San Gabriel Mountains
G. grande
                      41' Plant tufted or ± climbing; leaf generally elliptic; farther n than SnGB
2 G. bolanderi
                    40' Woody stems wiry, slender; generally coastal, insular, sometimes montane
2 G. californicum
                      42. Leaf generally 4–6 mm, ± fleshy, abruptly petioled; Outer South Coast Ranges
subsp. luciense
                      42' Leaf 4–25 mm, not fleshy, generally not petioled
 
                        43. Leaf 5–8 × longer than wide; n Sierra Nevada Foothills
subsp. sierrae
                        43' Leaf 2–4 × longer than wide
 
                          44. Herbage generally with dense, soft, fine hairs, or sometimes nearly glabrous — Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, SnGB, n Channel Islands
subsp. flaccidum
                          44' Herbage with ± sparse, scattered hairs
 
                            45. Hairs ± coarse; San Francisco Bay Area, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges
subsp. californicum
                            45' Hairs fine; San Jacinto Mountains
subsp. primum
          20' Fruit 2 nutlets, hairs unlike those of herbage, long, straight, (short, curved in G. buxifolium, G. jepsonii)
 
            46. Plant with staminate, pistillate, and sometimes bisexual flowers
 
              47. Herb; stem generally slender, flexible, woody; mainland
 
                48. Leaf ovate to orbicular, not sharp at tip; inflorescence narrow, open between dense clusters
G. parishii
                48' Leaf linear to oblanceolate, acute or sharp at tip; inflorescence open
G. wrightii
              47' Erect shrub; stem rigid, stout, woody; Channel Islands
 
                49. Ovary hairs short, curved, ascending; n Channel Islands
G. buxifolium
                49' Ovary hairs long, straight, spreading (or nearly 0); s Channel Islands
G. catalinense
                  50. Stem, leaf hairs sparse, generally very short, straight or, if longer, curved but not curly; Channel Islands (San Clemente Island)
subsp. acrispum
                  50' Stem, leaf hairs ± dense, short, curly; Channel Islands (Santa Catalina Island)
subsp. catalinense
            46' Plant with staminate or pistillate flowers only
 
              51. Ovary, fruit with short, curved, ascending hairs; corolla bell-shaped, divided halfway to base or less
G. jepsonii
              51' Ovary, fruit with long, straight, spreading hairs; corolla rotate or, if bell-shaped, divided > halfway to base (except G. hilendiae subsp. kingstonense)
 
                52. Leaf ± linear, generally widest above middle
 
                  53. Pedicel generally > fruit; upper nodes >> lower; fruit hairs < fruit
G. johnstonii
                  53' Pedicel generally < fruit; upper nodes ± = lower; fruit hairs = or > fruit
G. angustifolium
                    54. Corolla generally hairy (sometimes glabrous in subsp. jacinticum)
 
                      55. Stem hairy, sometimes scabrous
 
                        56. Stem hairs ± as long as those of leaf; stem ridges generally narrower than surfaces between; San Gabriel Mountains
subsp. gabrielense
                        56' Stem hairs shorter than those of leaf; stem ridges generally wider than surfaces between; s High Sierra Nevada
subsp. onycense
                      55' Stem ± glabrous
 
                        57. Inflorescence pyramid-shaped, many-flowered, much-branched — plant 35–50 cm; Sonoran Desert (Borrego Desert)
subsp. borregoense
                        57' Inflorescence narrow, few-flowered, few-branched
 
                          58. Plant 17–35 cm; leaf 11–26 mm; San Jacinto Mountains
subsp. jacinticum
                          58' Plant 6–16 cm; leaf generally 2–10 mm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains
subsp. nudicaule
                    54' Corolla generally glabrous or not more hairy than stem or leaf
 
                      59. Woody stem internode often < leaf; plant generally glabrous; n Channel Islands
subsp. foliosum
                      59' Woody stem internode generally > leaf; plant hairy or not
 
                        60. Plant tall or low, ± stout, glabrous to white-hairy; leaves not deciduous; widespread in hills, mtns, but not in Desert
subsp. angustifolium
                        60' Plant tall, very slender, generally glabrous; leaves deciduous; Desert Mountains
subsp. gracillimum
                52' Leaf generally ovate, generally widest below middle
 
                  61. Plant woody at base and above
 
                    62. Stem flexible, few-branched; leaf obtuse to acute but not sharp at tip; Transverse Ranges, s High Sierra Nevada
G. hallii
                    62' Stem rigid, much-branched; leaf sharp at tip; Desert
G. stellatum var. eremicum
                  61' Plant woody only at base
 
                    63. Corolla generally bell-shaped or cupped at base
 
                      64. Herbage glabrous
 
                        65. Leaves at each node ± equal, lanceolate to ovate, tapered to a pointed tip; Desert Mountains
G. argense
                        65' Leaves at each node ± unequal, the 2 larger ovate to orbicular, rounded abruptly to a pointed tip; n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
2 G. multiflorum
                      64' Herbage hairy, sometimes scabrous
 
                        66. Leaf rounded abruptly to a pointed tip, generally ± arched
2 G. multiflorum
                        66' Leaf tapered to a pointed tip, generally not arched
G. hilendiae
                          67. Plant generally tall, stiff; internode 2–6 × leaf; herbage ± hairy, generally scabrous; leaf tip ± sharp to touch
subsp. carneum
                          67' Plant generally ± low, flexible; internode 1–4.5 × leaf; herbage with long hairs; leaf tip not sharp
 
                            68. Corolla throat wide; leaf ovate to ± round
subsp. hilendiae
                            68' Corolla throat slender; leaf lanceolate, ovate, or elliptic
subsp. kingstonense
                    63' Corolla generally rotate, sometimes shallowly bell-shaped
 
                      69. Corolla hairy — East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
 
                        70. Herbage hairy
G. munzii
                        70' Herbage glabrous below hairy inflorescence
 
                          71. Plant flexible; leaf 8–23 mm, generally lanceolate to ovate, tip acute but not sharp to touch
G. magnifolium
                          71' Plant stiff; leaf 2–10 mm, ovate, tip sharp to touch
G. matthewsii
                      69' Corolla glabrous or velvety with magnification
 
                        72. Fruit, including hairs, 3–4 mm, well exserted from leaves; c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
G. hypotrichium
                          73. Corolla shallowly bell-shaped, reddish — herbage gray with ± dense, fine hairs; plant < 9 cm
subsp. tomentellum
                          73' Corolla generally rotate, greenish, yellow, or pink-tinged
 
                            74. Plant 12–23 cm, not dense
subsp. inyoense
                            74' Plant 2.5–15 cm, ± dense (subsp. subalpinum often open)
 
                              75. Herbage velvety with magnification
subsp. hypotrichium
                              75' Herbage hairy without magnification, not velvety
subsp. subalpinum
                        72' Fruit, including hairs, 5–8 mm, generally not much exserted from leaves; n High Sierra Nevada (n of Lake Tahoe), High North Coast Ranges
 
                          76. Herbage grayish; leaf broadly ovate to round
G. grayanum
                            77. Plant 5–23 cm
var. grayanum
                            77' Plant 2.5–14 cm, ± dwarfed
var. nanum
                          76' Herbage generally green; leaf lanceolate to elliptic or obovate
 
                            78. Leaf lanceolate to elliptic
G. serpenticum
                              79. Corolla often ± cup-shaped; leaf tip generally flat; Klamath Ranges
subsp. scotticum
                              79' Corolla rotate; leaf tip often reflexed; Warner Mountains
subsp. warnerense
                            78' Leaf ovate to obovate or nearly round
G. glabrescens
                              80. Leaf ovate to obovate or round, tip sometimes blunt; Klamath Ranges
subsp. glabrescens
                              80' Leaf ovate, tip generally slender, acute; Warner Mountains
subsp. modocense


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